1.1.1 in the low voltage directive 2014/35 /

1.1.1       Electromagnetic compatibility Directive

Most of the electric devices influence each
other while connected or placed close to it due to the electromagnetic
interference caused by them. The main purpose electromagnetic compatibility is
to suppress the side effects caused due to inference and making sure the
product works as intended in such environment. This directive ensures that the
product does not generate or not being influenced by such interferences. The
general requirement limits for electromagnetic compatibility are laid down in
the EMC Directive 2014/30 / EU 26.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!

order now

This guideline is intended for all
equipment which is covered by a ready-to-use device or a fixed-location system,
which may cause electromagnetic interference and is not intended for radio
equipment or telecommunications terminal equipment or for aviation 20, p. 79.

The general requirements of the Directive
state that an equipment should be designed and manufactured according to the
latest state of the art. It must not cause any electromagnetic interference in
which proper operation of radio and telecommunication equipment or other
equipment is not possible. It is intended to be sufficiently insensitive to
electromagnetic phenomena which are to be expected in the case of the intended
operation, in order to be able to operate without any unacceptable impairment
20, p. 97.

The following standards specify measures
for compliance with the directive and limit values ??for electromagnetic
interference that is to be expected and for disturbance levels, which are still
guaranteed by other means of operation.

EN 61000-6-2
– sub-standards: 61000-4-2 – 4-6 & 4-11

EN 61000-6-3 – sub-standards:
EN 55022

EN 61000-3-2

EN 61000-3-3

The low voltage directive on
electromagnetic fields is the 2013/35 / EU Electromagnetic Fields Directive.
The harmonized standards for this Directive (EN 50371, EN 62311) provide much
higher limits which are fully covered by the above-mentioned standards for the
EMC Directive 2014/30 / EU.

1.1.2       Low voltage Directive

The Low Voltage
Directive (LVD) 2014/35/EU ensures that the category of electrical
equipment which is under certain voltage limits should provide a high level of
protection for citizens of the EEA Market and fully benefits the Single Market.
Electrical equipment under this directive covers a wide range of products ranging
from consumer products to professional industrial products such as most of the household
appliances, power supply units, Control Units, Encoding Units, Transmission
Units and also fuses 25.

The general requirements for the low
voltage are laid down in the low voltage directive 2014/35 / EU.

The Directive applies to all electrical
equipment operating at nominal voltages between 50 V and 1000 V at alternating
current and between 75 V and 1500 V at direct current. 21, p. 360 Excluded
are devices for use in explosive atmospheres, medical areas, shipping, airplanes
or railways and other areas with special requirements but the ACU does not fall
under any of the excluded areas 21, p. 369 .

The general requirements of the Directive
state that essential characteristics for a safe use of the equipment or the
accompanying documents must be stated, that the equipment should be such that
it can be securely connected and protected from the following dangers when used
as intended.

The equipment must provide protection
against the following hazards:

Injuries to humans or animals
which could be caused by direct or indirect handling of the equipment

Temperatures, arcs or
radiations, from which there is a risk

Non-electrical hazards which
may result from the equipment

Insufficient insulation

Technical measures must be taken at all

Furthermore, the equipment must protect
humans, animals and goods from risks which can be caused by external
influences. Among the external effects the following stresses occur:

Expected mechanical stress

Provided non-mechanical
environmental conditions

Predictable overloading 21, p.

The standard EN 62368-1 provides protective
devices for compliance with the directive and limit values ??for the loads to
be expected.

1.1.3       Radio Equipment Directive (RED)

The Radio Equipment Directive (2014/53/EU)
is derived specifically for the Radio equipment products that fall under the
Electrical and Electronic Equipment. Most of the equipment which falls under
this directive might also be influenced by the LVD and EMC Directives. This
Directive is to make sure the essential requirements for health and safety of
the single market and to efficiently use the Radio spectrum.

This directive is updated and has been
applicable since 13 June 2017. The new updated directive has requirements also
for products that make use of the receivers whereas the till June 2017 the
products which use involves transmission of information fall under this
directive. As the ACU has a DVB-S Receiver for the pointing of the Satellite
Antenna fall under this new updated Directive. This directive is accompanied by
annex which list the equipment which can be exempted but the list category do
not suit with ACU 27.


The Equipment which emits or received the
radio waves intentionally for radio communication and use the radio spectrum is
covered by this directive. As the ACU use a receiver, it should be operated in
certain level of performance and has to protect itself from the interference
especially in cases like shared or adjacent channels. In this way it could also
efficiently make use of those channels. Even though the receivers do not
produce any harmful interference themselves, the reception capability of the
receiver is an important factor to look upon to increase efficient use of
spectrum. The product falling under this directive should also be verified with
the LVD and EMC directive to make sure that it properly fulfills the necessary
requirements 22, p. 63.


The product of certain categories should be
designed in such manner that it is able to be communicating with other devices
or product through the interfaces. The essential requirement that should be
considered for the communication of the equipment with other devise and product
are listed below.

Radio equipment interworks with
accessories, specifically used with common chargers.

Radio equipment interworks via
networks with other radio equipment 22, p. 72.

Radio equipment can be
connected to interfaces of the appropriate type throughout the Union.

Radio equipment does not harm
the network or its functioning nor misuse network resources, thereby causing an
unacceptable degradation of service.

Radio equipment incorporates
safeguards to ensure that the personal data and privacy of the user and of the
subscriber are protected.

Radio equipment supports
certain features ensuring protection from fraud.

Radio equipment supports
certain features ensuring access to emergency services.

Radio equipment supports
certain features in order to facilitate its use by users with a disability.

Radio equipment supports
certain features in order to ensure that software can only be loaded into the
radio equipment where the compliance of the combination of the radio equipment
and software has been demonstrated. 22, p. 73

The Radio Equipment
Directive (2014/53/EU) provides a regulatory framework for placing
radio equipment on the market. This framework provides a list of Harmonised
standards which cover every individual type of product which falls under this
directive. The Hamornised standards the ACU Prototype fall under is EN 303
372-2. It is a standard for the Satellite broadcast Indoor reception equipment.


1.1.4       Environmentally harmful substances

General restrictions on certain
environmental hazards in electrical and electronic equipment are specified in
the RoHS Directive 2011/65 / EU (Restriction of certain Hazardous Substances).
In this directive the ACU falls under the category IT and Telecommunication
Equipment 23, p. 99.

The directive deals with the use of
hazardous and environmentally harmful heavy metals in electrical and electronic

The following substances are covered by the

Lead (0,1 %)

Mercury (0,1 %)

Cadmium (0,01 %)

Hexavalent chromium (0,1 %)

Polybrominated biphenyls (PBB)
(0,1 %)

The permissible maximum concentration for
the substances in homogeneous materials in weight percent is in each case 0.1%
and in the case of cadmium 0.01%. This means that in materials where one or
more of the hazardous substances are contained, the hazardous substance may not
exceed 0.1% or 0.01% of the mass of the material used. For example, in the case
of a ceramic capacitor, the lead in the dielectric may account for only 0.1% of
the weight of the dielectric, but not 0.1% of the weight of the entire capacitor
23, p. 100. The directive provides a list of application that are exempted
from the restriction such as the lead present in the soldering connection on
the equipment 23, p. 103.

Another Directive dealing with
environmental pollutants is the WEEE (Waste Electrical and Electronic
Equipment) Directive 2012/19 / EU. This Directive states that electrical and
electronic equipment must be provided with the information shown in Figure 3?2 29,
p. 66, that these must not be disposed of in household waste. The directive
requires the sales company to take over the disposal of the products after the
end of the lifetime if the customer returns the device. It also provides
information of process to dispose the product 29.

Figure 3?2 Indication of Waste Management