1. Dr. Anupama Sharma- This paper highlights the potential of MedicalTourism industry in India.
It also helps in introspecting the HospitalAccreditation system for Medical Tourism, examining the role of Government inpromoting infrastructure for Medical Tourism and analysing the latest trend toincrease the flow of Medical tourism. For analyzing the potential andsignificance of medical tourism in India, the data has been gathered throughsecondary sources which includes Books, Magazines, Journals, E-Journals andwebsites etc. After analyzing all the facts it can be concluded that India isin an advantageous position to tap the global opportunities in the medicaltourism sector. The government’s role is crucial to the development of medicaltourism. The government should take steps in the role of a regulator and alsoas a facilitator of private investment in healthcare.
Mechanisms need to beevolved to enable quicker visa grants to foreign tourists for medical purposeswhere patients can contact the Immigration Department at any point of entry forquick clearance. 2. Ramash U and Kurian Joseph-This paper evaluate the striking feature ofhealthcare industry in India is its potential to grow at a much faster rate inthe foreseeable future. In this prevailing situation, Health Tourism hasemerged as a separate industry with incredible potential. Health tourism refers to trips that are taken bytourists with the principal purpose being to improve their health and/orwellbeing. Today, once again, promoting the healthful and health-care benefitsof a destination is gaining popularity because tourism marketers need ways todifferentiate their products. Kerala can tap this trend by highlighting itsunique health care products.
The State, almost synonymous with the word’Ayurveda’, is now all set to reap the benefits of the same through Wellnesstourism. Kerala has the advantage of worldwide recognition, as it has beenincluded in the list of the ten must-see destinations by the NationalGeographic Traveler. Wellness, in general, is used to mean a healthy balance ofthe mind, body and spirit that results in an overall feeling of well-being. Theconcept of health holiday, now better known as Wellness holiday, is based onthe principles of Ayurveda, meditation, yoga, physical exercises and a balanceddiet.
It is like rejuvenation and cleanup process on all levels – physical,mental and emotional. Ayurveda deals elaborately with measures for healthfulliving during the entire span of life and its various phases. Besides, dealingwith principles for maintenance of health, it has also developed a wide rangeof therapeutic measures to combat illness. In order to cope with the growingdemand for wellness, resorts, hospitals, medical practitioners and Governmenthave taken ample measures to promote alternative health care in Kerala.
Alongwith the projects already underway, there is a need to draw up plans forpromotions in future. This paper investigates the reasons why Kerala is nowpioneering as an alternative healthcare destination and the main objective isto analyze the reason as to why Kerala is being chosen as a preferreddestination for Wellness Tourism. An attempt is made to study the marketpotential and strategies adopted for Kerala to emerge as the most sought afterWellness tourism destination in the Globe.
3. Dr Rajendra Mishra and Kumar Shailesh – This paper explains Medical Tourism in India isbudding as an exponential growth of 25%-30% annually. Medical Tourism (alsocalled medical travel, health tourism or global healthcare) is the practice oftraveling abroad to get hold of healthcare services. Typically, by travelingabroad patients not only save a considerable amount of money but also receiveworldclass service.
There are different opinions as to whether medical tourismis still a promising industry or had been considered firmly established. The industryis being followed and promoted by several trustworthy organizations, includingthe Medical Tourism Association (MTA), the Deloitte Center for HealthSolutions, and the Joint Commission International. The MTA is an industry groupactively involved in promoting the Medical Tourism industry, above all throughits publication. The Deloitte Center is a research arm of the global accountingfirm on healthcare. The JCI is a division of the Joint Commission which isinvolved in accrediting health care facilities outside the United States.National Accreditation board for hospitals (NABH) is responsible as Indianregulatory body for medical travel in India. India’s medical tourism isdominated by the private sector from the corporate houses. Medical Tourism in Indiahas 80% hospital managed by private sector, which is ultimately invigoratingand making India a global medical Tourism destination.
4. Ann Sommer Rutherford -This study is an investigation of the impact onthe health of local populations spurred by the medical tourism industry. Morespecifically the study explores a possible increase in life expectancy in areassurrounding medical tourism facilities in India. There are Ten Indian Statesexamined in this study; five states are host to a leading location of ApolloHospitals, and five are not. Despite the small sample size, the chosen statespresent a good representation of Indian states based on size, wealth, andhealth indicators.
The findings show that the presence of Apollo HospitalMedical Tourism facilities may lead to increased life expectancy of Indianstate populations. 5. Saptarshi Dutta, Mukul Sengupta, Susanta Kumar Rout – This paper explains healthcare, like food andshelter, is a basic need of Humanity. Given the potential India holds as ahealthcare destination, the healthcare tourism sector can be a major source offoreign exchange earnings for the country. India’s healthcare sector has madeimpressive strides in recent years and the country is increasingly projected asa ‘healthcare hub’. Several features have positioned India as an idealhealthcare destination, like cost effective healthcare solutions, availabilityof skilled healthcare professionals, reputation for successful treatment inadvanced healthcare segments, increasing popularity of India’s traditionalwellness systems and rapid strides made in information technology. The sectoris witnessing a ‘reverse brain-drain’ trend, with increasing number ofspecialists, who have been practicing abroad, showing keen interest to comeback and practice in India.
Such developments further enhance the potential ofIndia as a ‘healthcare hub’ of the world. People travel to India for availinghealthcare services for diverse reasons. While healthcare tourists from UnitedStates are primarily reported to be traveling to India, as the cost of gettingtreatment in home country is expensive, travelers from Europe are reported tobe seeking healthcare services in India due to the complexity of availing thehealthcare services in their home country. Some of the tourists from West Asiaand Africa region travel to India due to affordability of treatment and qualityof services rendered.
A section of tourists from different parts of the worldtravel to India for traditional healthcare services, such as Ayurveda and Yoga. 6. Nicola S Pocock and Kai Hong Phua – This paper explains medical tourism is a growingphenomenon with policy implications for health systems, particularly ofdestination countries.
Private actors and governments in Southeast Asia arepromoting the medical tourist industry, but the potential impact on healthsystems, particularly in terms of equity in access and availability for localconsumers, is unclear. This article presents a conceptual framework thatoutlines the policy implications of medical tourism’s growth for healthsystems, drawing on the cases of Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia, threeregional hubs for medical tourism, via an extensive review of academic and greyliterature. Variables for further analysis of the potential impact of medicaltourism on health systems are also identified.
The framework can provide abasis for empirical, in country studies weighing the benefits and disadvantagesof medical tourism for health systems. The policy implications described are ofparticular relevance for policymakers and industry practitioners in otherSoutheast Asian countries with similar health systems where governments haveexpressed interest in facilitating the growth of the medical tourist industry.This article calls for a universal definition of medical tourism and medicaltourists to be enunciated, as well as concerted data collection efforts, to beundertaken prior to any meaningful empirical analysis of medical tourism’s impacton health systems. 7. Marc Piazolo and Nur?en Albayrak Zanca – The objective of this paper is to demonstrate asimple Ricardian model of international trade for health care industries ofdifferent countries. Their motivation is to illustrate that specialization and freetrade result in gains from international trade.
By adopting the model ofcomparative advantage to the costs of medical surgeries, show that tradebetween our two model countries – India and the USA – is beneficial to both ofthem. People focused on these two countries due to their prominence inworldwide medical tourism flows, as well as due to their significant differencein per capita income. By specializing on the type of surgery they are mostefficient in producing, it will enhance well being of both nations. Numericalexamples and graphical presentations help to support our arguments. Beside theglobal aspect of medical tourism, we also want to shed some light into regionalpatient flows with a focus on Germany and Hungary. In addition, lift some ofthe more restrictive assumptions. By including transportation costs as well asa larger variety of surgical services, the central message of the beneficialeffect of specialization still remains, even though the general picture becomesslightly blurred.
There is evidence for support of a more multi-polarinternational system of trade in medical services the moment one extends theeconomic analysis with additional countries. 8. Mihaela dinu, Alexandra zbuchea, Adrian Cioaca – The Romanian health tourism, based on itsexceptional natural resources represents an important segment of the tourismindustry. Old tradition of valorization of thermal waters, mineral springs,moieties curative mud spa treatments are intertwined nowadays with variousforms of medical tourism, some practiced for over four decades (the Ana Aslangeriatric treatment) and others being more recent (cosmetic surgery, dentalcare, eye surgery, etc).The main purpose of this article is to analyze theevolution of medical tourism, especially of spa tourism in Romania, one of therichest countries in Europe in terms of extent and excellence of specificnatural resources, with old and unsuitable infrastructure if referred to thepublic spa facilities, but with modern facilities in wellness and medicalprivate units. The research is both quantitative and qualitative.
The firstmethod is based on statistical analysis of data provided by the NationalStatistics Institute of Romania. The qualitative analysis complements theprevious one, which is not extremely detailed and is also not available for along period of time. There search reveals unequal evolution of the Romanian spatourism, a severe discrepancy between the quality of specific resources and theexisting spa infrastructure, contradictory demand, as well as positive trendsfor the medium-term future.
As a research method we used first of all thequalitative analysis – the available statistical data are rather scarce. Theresearch reveals the lack of investments and the necessity of implementation ofa whole host of local plans as part ofa new national strategy for tourismindustry. 9.
Neil Lunt, Mariann Hardey and Russell Mannion – This article provides a brief overview of themost recent development in Medical Tourism and examines how this is linked tothe emergence of specialized internet web sites. It produces a summary of thefunctionality of medical tourist sites and situates Medical Tourism informaticswithin the broader literatures relating to information search, informationquality and decision-making. This paper is both a call to strengthen theempirical evidence in this area, and also to advocate integrating MedicalTourism research within a broader conceptual framework. 10. Barney Warf- The face of rapidly rising health carecosts and a large uninsured or underinsured population, the number of U.Smedical tourists seeking assistance abroad has grown. A relative newcomer tothis field, Costa Rica offers a number of unique advantages that havepositioned it advantageously to cater to Americans.
This paper explores therise of the country’s medical tourism sector, the cost differentials betweenservices performed there and in the U.S, and factors that shape the supply ofmedical services, including medical accreditation and aftercare facilities. Indoing so, it addresses the local implications of the globalization of healthcare, particularly as it concerns the troubled US health care system. 11. Weighing the Gats on a Development Scale – This study aims to provide insight on how recentdevelopments in the tourism industry in Goa have affected small communities inGoa in light of both current developments and potential developments as perIndia’s commitments within the GATS framework. More specifically, the studyconsiders two areas of Goa: the Chapora-Sinquerim and Miramar-Caranzalemshorelines and adjacent communities, and two hotel chains in both areas; theTaj Fort Aguada Resort and the Marriott Goa respectively. An analysis of therelevant policy and regulation at the national and state level is provided, aswell as a consideration of the implications of the GATS on the tourism sectorin Goa. With this, we provide insight on how these three levels of policymechanisms relate to each other and what discrepancies exist.
Moreover, byrelating the policy environment with current case studies, a more pragmaticapproach is facilitated in determining how closely firms operating within theindustry adhere to the policy environment, and what effects the industry has onlocal communities. 12. Caribbean Environmental Network – This study is a component of a regional projectwhich was initiated in late 1995 to promote corrective actions regardingland-based sources of pollution caused by tourism which have a negative impacton coastal and marine resources. This project of the United States Agency forInternational Development (USAID) supports the International Coral ReefInitiative (ICRI), which is being implemented by a grant with the CaribbeanEnvironment Programme (CEP) of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).ICRI is an initiative of various governments and organizations to conserve andmanage coral reefs and their related ecosystems. 13. G.
K. Shaw- The primary objective of this research was to develop “A Risk ManagementModel for the Tourism Industry in South Africa?, when viewed from a businessperspective. The study investigated both domestic and international risks andtheir effects on the industry from a business perspective. The categories ofrisk include, but were not limited to, natural risks, crime, health and safety,political factors, economic risks, technological risks and socio-demographicrisks. The study highlighted the fact that some categories of risks significantto one business sector may not have the same affect on another sector. However,this did not adversely influence the development of the model. This researchhas identified two significant deficiencies in respect of risk management inthe (South African) tourism industry – that there is no literature source thatprovides an in-depth discussion of risks and risk management in the tourismindustry, and that there is no generally accepted risk management model andprocess for use by the industry. 14.
Ramaiahtumalla and Dr G V R K Acharyulu – The objective of the paper is to present thecurrent status of FDI in Hospitals, to identify some of the challenges andopportunities in this industry. The study is descriptive in nature and based onthe secondary data that is gathered from the books, articles, reports ofDepartment of Industrial Policy & Promotion and other valid online sources.The results of this study provide the current status of FDI in Hospitals anddiagnostic centers and challenges and opportunities in healthcare sector. 15. E-tourism in England– This paper explains, England’s tourism businesseshave the capacity to become world leaders by better use of informationtechnology. Tourism in England becoming more competitive and profitable as itrealizes the new market opportunities afforded by e-business. This philosophyextend way beyond usage of e-mail and development of websites and impact on virtually every element of thebusiness process.
Proper integration between national, regional and localsystems becomes a reality, producing enormous advantages for both the consumerand the tourism industry. The growth of information and communicationstechnology (ICT) in tourism has been patchy and inconsistent. Many businesses,especially the smaller ones, have been understandably reluctant to invest in somethingthat they see as non-essential.
At local and sub-regional level, many tourismdestinations – mostly local authority run or sponsored – have implementedsystems initially designed to provide better information, but later extended tocover marketing, administration and research. While many of these arecomprehensive for the destination, there are a number of different softwaresolutions in use and there is little co-ordination between them. More recently,Regional Tourist Boards (RTBs) and Regional Development Agencies (RDAs) havestarted to address these issues and several have produced regional e-businessstrategies and initiatives to stimulate businesses to adapt. At a nationallevel, ETC and the RTBs have collaborated on developing the England Netproject, through which the regions, ETC, the British Tourist Authority (BTA),Destination Management Organisations (DMOs), Tourist Information Centers(TICs), other tourism organisations and individual tourism businesses can allshare information via a national network.
16. P H Rao– This paper explains that private health sector in India is fairly large. Itscontribution to achieving national health objectives to a large extent isdependent on the quality of care it offers. The private sector has improved accessto medical and health care. The quality of care offered by the private healthcare delivery system needs immediate attention. Improving the quality ofmedical and para-medical education, capacity building, improving access tostandards and guidelines, and encouraging accreditation are some of themeasures that can improve QoC.
There is also an urgent need for developing aneffective mechanism to monitor the quality of care. A centralized system mightprove useful in ensuring uniformity in standards adherence as per theprescribed norms as state-level implementation has been found to be lacking. Camelia Surugiu – The paper presents an Input-Output Analysis for tourism sector inRomania, an important source of information for the investigation of the inter-relationsexisting among different industries. The Input-Output Analysis is used todetermine the role and importance of different economic value added, incomesand employment and it analyses the existing connection in an economy.
Thispaper is focused on tourism and the input-output analysis is finished for thehotels and restaurants Sector