Health/Fitness

Stages of Motor Learning
1.  Simple reflexes to basic movements.  Sitting, crawling, creeping, standing, walking

2.  More complex motor patterns.  Running, climbing, jumping, balancing, catching, throwing.

3.  Late childhood.  More specific movement skills.  Basic motor patterns from #2 become more fluid and automatic.

4.  Adolescence.  Continue to develop general and specific skills and master specialized movements.  Factors include practice, motivation, talent begin to affect level of further development

(think basketball, etc)

Sequential Development
Locomotor = crawl, creep, walk, run, jump, hop, gallop, slide, leap, skip, step-hop.

 

Nonlocomotor – stretch, bend, sit, shake, turn, rock and sway, swing, twist, dodge, fall.

 

Manipulative – striking, throwing, kicking, ball rolling, volleying, bouncing, catching, trapping.

Physical Development
Small children 3-5=lots of physical activity, followed by lots of rest. lack fine motor skills, cannot focus on small objects for very long.  bones are still developing. girls more coordinated, boys stronger. lag in fine motor skills continues until 6-8.

Pre-adolescents 9-11 = become stronger, longer, leaner.  motor skills improve.  focus gets better, growth is constant, physical gender predispositions manifest.  at risk of obesity w/o proper nutrition/adequate activity.

Young adolescents 12-14=experience drastic growth, girls before boys, highly preoccupied with physical appearance.

Later adolescence 15-17=girls reach full height. increase in hormones causes acne, sexual activity (boys=hormones, girls=pressure)

 

 

Cognitive Development
Small children 3-5=most important aspect of cog development. allows for successes, rewards mature behavior, allows exploration that can imporve confidence/self esteem

early elementary 6-8=eager to learn and love to talk. very literal understanding of rules/verbal intructions, must develop strong listening skills.

pre-adolescent 9-11=increased logical thought, knowledge or beliefs may be unusual or surprising.Diff in cognitive styles develop (field dependent or independent preferences)

early adolescents 12-14=boys score higher on mechanical/spatial reasoning, girls on spelling, language, and clerical tasks.  boys better at mental imagery. girls have better access and retreival of info from memory.  self-efficacy (ability to self-eval) becomes very impt.

later adolescents 15-17= capable of formal thought, but don’t always apply. conflicts btwn parents/worldviews, may become interested in political thinking.

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Social Development
Small children 3-5=socially flexible. diff kids will prefer solitary, parallel, or cooperative play. freq’t quarels will occur, boys tend to be more aggressive. gender roles aware.

Early elementary 6-8=increasingly selective of friends (usually of same sex). enjoy games but are excessively preocupied by rules. verbal aggression more common than physical, encourage kids to solve own conflicts.

Pre-adolescent 9-11=great importance on (perceived) opinions of peers and social stature, will go to great lengths to fit in, friendships are very selective, usually of same sex.

Young adolescent 12-14=develop greater understanding of emotions of others, resulting in increased emotional sensitivity which impacts peer relationships.  develop an increased need to perform.

Late adolescent 15-17=peers ar still primary influece on day-to-day operations, but parents will have increaasing influence on long term goals.  girls’ friendships close and intimate, whereas boys are baed on competition/similar interests. many work part time, educators should be alert to potential dropouts.

Emotional Development
small children 3-5=express emotion freely and have a limited ability to learn how emotions influence behavior. jealousy is common.

early elementary 6-8=easily bruised feelings, just beginning to recognize feelings of others.; will want to please teachers/adults.

pre adolescents 9-11=develop global and stable self-image(self concept/esteem).; comparisons to their peers/opinions are important. unstable home environment conributes to delinquency.

young adolescents 12-14=can be stormy/stressful time, but only about 20% of kids. boys have trouble controlling anger + impulsive behaviors. girls may suffer depression. very egocentric/concerned with appearance. “adults just dont understand”.

later adolescents 15-17=educators be alert to signs of mental health probs (eating disorders, substance abuse, schizophrenia).

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Piaget’s Stages of Conitive Development
Sensorimotor 0-24mths=spatial abilities are developed incl. reflexes, coordination, and habits.  Infant acts like a scientist, making observations/conducting “experiments”.  Near the end, child is able to go beyond trial and error and use skills to achieve a goal.

Preoperational 2-7yo=lacks necessary mental skills to problem solve beyond superficial level.  Able to ID object by a single feature, but can’t sort thru based on differing features.; crucial for lang. developemnt as objects and actions begin to be associated with words.; still unable to use logical reason, is egocentric.; nearing the end, problem solving improve significantly, but are unaware of how they came to their conclusions.

Concrete operational 7-11yo=able to use logic to solve problems, using seriation (sorting), transivity (understand relationships based on order), classification (name object by specific characteristic), decentering (take into account multiple perspectives), reversibility (change an object, then return to original state), and conservation (knowledge that an item’s value may not be related to its appearance). Nearing end, child is able to see another’s POV, eliminating egocentrism.

; Formal Operational 11-death=builds upon prev three and is characterized by ability to think/reason logically, draw conclusions from multiple sources, make value judgements and think deeply about hypothetical situations.

Eric Erikson’s Stages of Development
0-12months= trust vs mistrust. ex. cant’ lose sight of mom, scared at strangers.

Young childhood 1-3= shame vs doubt. learning about autonomy.; wants to be independent, and tests adults with temper tantrums. Pay is very impt as kids learn language and self-control.

Early childhood 3-5= learns to initiate tasks and carry them out, and quality of guilt when tasks are not completed. learns how to dream about goals associated with adult life (“i want to be a…when I grow up”). begins to play with other kids and aware of sex differences. moral development begins to take place.

Middle childhood 6-10= beings to take pride in work and has sense of acheivement. friendships develop as well as learning skills. learns to act as a team.

Spatial Awareness
Ability to make decisions about an object’s positional changes in space.

 

Try:  balls, boxes, hoops

Move towards and away, under/over, in front of/behind, inside/outside/besides.

 

Think:  Grover’s “over, under, around, and thru” song about mountain

Fine Motor Skills
Tearing newspaper, cutting, puzzles, clay manipulation, finger painting, tracing name, drawing
Gross Motor Development
Running, walking in straight line, jumping + over obstacles, hopping on one foot, walking down stairs w/ one foot over another, marching, walking backwards, throwing ball, sliding
Locomotor Skills
In sequence: Creep, crawl, walk, run, jump, hop, gallop, slide, lean, skip, step-hop

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Others: body rolling,vaulting, leaping

Nonlocomotor Skills
In sequence:

stretch, Bending, sit, shake, turn, rock and sway, swing,; twisting, dodge, fall.

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Others: pushing, pulling

Manipulative Skills
In sequence: striking, throwing, kicking, ball rolling, volleying, bouncing, catching, trapping

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Others: dribbling,

Sequential Development