Language Arts Terminology

Phonology
the study of the sound system of a language
phonemes
basic units of sound
graphemes
letters (or symbols) that represent phonemes (a.k.a. sounds).
morphology
study of the structure of words and word formation
morphemes
smallest representation of meaning; knowledge in this particular area will help students in word analysis
lexicon
vocabulary of a language; keep in mind that vocabulary is the most changeable component in language
semantics
describes the way that meaning is conveyed in a language
connotation
the implied meaning of words and ideas
denotation
the literal meaning of words and ideas
pragmatics
describes how context can affect interpretation of communication
Phonation disorder
a disorder that describes any kind of abnormality in the vibration of the vocal fold.
Resonance
describes abnormalities created when sound passes through the vocal tract
receptive aphasia
results from a lesion to the a region in the upper back part of the temporal lobe of the brain; this creates problems with listening comprehension and retrieval of words from memory
Expressive aphasia
results from damage to the lower back part of the frontal lobe; this affects speaking ability and causes problems with articulation and fluency
Phonemic awareness
ability to understand that words have smaller components called sounds & that these sounds together create syllables and words.
alliteration
a literacy technique used to emphasize phoenes by using successive words that begin with the same consonant sound or letter

 

ex.  Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers.

syllabication
the ability to conceptualize and separate words into their basic pronunication components which are syllables.
skills based approach
emphasizes phonics instruction
meaning-based approach
promotes reading comprehension and enrichment
alphabetic principle
the ability to connect letters of the alphabet with the sounds that they produce
pictographic writing systems
designed to represent words or ideas with a visual immage representing the concept
syllabic writing
represents syllables with signs; more efficient than pictographic writing
alphabetic writing
uses sounds of the language as a basic unit for writing; english and spanish use this kind of system
Phonics
method of teaching beginners to read and pronounce words by teachign them the phonetic value of letters, letter groups, and syllables.
top-down approach
begins with the whole and then proceeds to its individual parts; represents the Whole Language approach.
miscue analysis
a process that begins with a child reading a selection orally, and an examiner noting variations of the oral reading from the printed text.
word analysis
the way that children approach a written word in order to decode and obtain meaning from it.
dolch/sight words
220 of the most frequently used words in the English language according to Edward Dolch; if children recognize these, they can become more fluent readers
context clues
help identify unknown words
semantic cues
require a child to think about the meanings of words, and what is already known about the topic being read.
syntactic clues
provides clues detailing the word order in sentence.
structural clues
clues that pay special attention to morphemes (letter groups)
derivational morphemes
prefixes, suffixes; may change the syntactic classification of a word