The consonant sound that comes before the first vowel in a syllable (e.g. “c” and “b” in “cabby” or the “sw” in “swim”). Not all words have onset (e.g. “eat”).
The entire syllable excluding the onset (e.g. the “im” in “swim”).
Weaving individual sounds together to produce a word (e.g. “t-o-p”).
The smallest units of sound (e.g. the sounds associated with individual letters). (E.g. “Egg” has two phonemes — the sound for “e” and the sound for “gg”). (E.g. “Wish” has three phonemes — the sound for “w”, “i”, and “sh”).
Each phoneme should have its own distinctive graphic representation.
The awareness that individual letters have specific sounds associated with them (and that sounds make up words). (A child with phonemic awareness would soon learn that by breaking a word into letters and “sounding out” each letter, the overall word can be pronounced.)
The association of sounds with writing (either with letters or groups of letters — e.g. “ing”).
The awareness that words are made up of sounds. (and that these sounds can be taken individually or grouped together into units. E.g. phonemes vs syllables).
Understand the information obtained
Use the information in different situations
Analyze the information so you understand sub-parts, and see how it compares to other information
Combine the information with previously-learned information to come up with new information/conclusions
Use the information to make the best judgement possible about something