Knowing & Learning

Task Environment
A problem plus the context in which the subject encounters the problem. 
Ill-Defined Problem
No unique solution and no standard, universal method of finding the solution.
Problem Space
The set of all possible knowledge states the solver can construct from the initial state using the legal operators.
Cognitive Architechture
Built in mental features that allow our minds to build and execute programs
Declarative Memory
The system for remembering specific events (Episodic Memory) and general facts & word meanings. (Semantic Memory)
Nondeclarative Memory
Memory for motor, perceptual and cognitive skills-our memory for procedures.
Networks that store our general knowledge (web/branch graphs). When we learn something, it is grouped on these schemas
Learn one thing and apply it to something else. Bring other knowledge from previous experience to understand concept. 
people’s abilities to predict their performances on various tasks and to monitor their current levels of mastery and understanding.
Working Memory
The cognitive resource we use to execute mental operations and to remember results of those operations for short periods of time.

Limited Capacity

To help remember words, group them into meaningful categories to help remember.


Ex. “dog,cat,carrots, peas, gold, diamonds” –> Animal, Vegatable, mineral.

– Building on what children know and extending their competencies.

Steps for scaffolding:

    – interesting the child in the task

    – simplifying the task into manageable components

    – continued motivation of the child through the task

    – marking discrepancies between answer and response

    – controlling frustration

    – demonstrating an idealized version of task

“Where before there was a spectator, let there now be a participant.”

Is a weak method that chooses intelligent next moves on a problem if the problem requires progress along a single dimension.
Means-End Analysis 
identifies several differences between the current situation and the goal, then picks an action or an operator  that will reduce one or more of those differences. 
Eposodic Memory
part of the declarative memory; contains specific events