Context awareness is a core property of ubiquitous
computing. Context aware systems aim to adapt to the changing context
dynamically and intelligently in order to meet users’ needs. The focus on
context-aware computing evolved from desktop applications, web applications,
mobile computing, pervasive/ubiquitous computing to the Internet of Things
(IoT) over the last decade. Context aware computing became more popular with
the introduction to “ubiquitous computing” by Mark Weiser 1 in 1991 at Xerox
Palo Alto Research Centre (PARC) in the US. Context aware systems are one type
of UbiCom (pervasive) systems.

In IoT paradigm, billions
of sensors are connected to the internet and they are producing data in a huge amount.
 So, it is not an easy task to find the meaningful
information based on users’ current state. Context aware computing allows the
use of software and hardware to automatically gather and analyze data about a
device’s environments in order to provide relevant and meaningful information
to the end user.

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“Context” has been defined by many researches in several
ways . Dey 3 evaluated and claimed that these definitions are too
specific and cannot be used to identify new context. Dey 3 defined the
context as, “Context is any information that can be used to characterize
the situation of an entity where an entity is a person, place, or object that
is considered relevant to the interaction between a user and an application,
including the user and application themselves”. Schilit and Theimer 2
introduced ‘context-aware’ term in 1994. If a system has the property to make
it aware of its user’s state and surroundings and help it adapt its behavior
accordingly, then it can be referred as context aware system. Later, Dey 3
defined context awareness as, “A system is context-aware if it uses context to
provide relevant information and/or services to the user, where relevancy
depends on the user’s task. 3”