414

Social Competence
The ability to recognize, interpret, and respond appropriately in social situations.
Nested Ecology of Human Development
The different types of things that effects a child in their surrounding environment. Includes four distinct social systems: Microsystem, Mesosystem, exosystem, and Macrosystem.
DAP
Developmentally Appropriate Practice
Individually Appropriate
Age Appropriate
Socially and Culturally Appropriate
Facilitation Dimension
The process of creating emotionally supportive relationships with children. It is the basis for any successful interaction with children.
Action Dimension
The process of teaching children to maintain or change their behavior.
The Principle of Cumulative Effect
An experience has minimal effect on a child’s development if it occurs only once but if the experience is repeated it has a negative effect on the child.
Domains of Development
Physical, Cognitive, Social, Emotional, Language
Emblem
Specific cultural gestures that have a direct verbal referent. This includes gestures such as head nodding, hand shaking, and waving of hands. These can be translated into words but are efficient and meaningful signals by themselves.
Gestures
The movement of hands, arms, or body that accompany speech used to illustrate words, give emphasis or replace words.
Display Rules
Unspoken expectations of non-verbal behavior in response to a situation. It governs the display of non-verbal behavior.
Non-Verbal Communication
Actions rather than words used to communicate.
Mixed Message
A communication in which the spoken words and one or more non-verbal channels communicate conflicting meanings. Body language says one thing and tone of voice says another.
Paraphrase Reflection
These are non-judgmental restatements of something the child said, not word for word. The adult listens carefully to what the child is saying, then repeats the statement to the child in words that were slightly different from those originally used.
Behavior Reflections
Non-judgmental statements made to children that describe their attributes or roles in activities in which they are engaged being with the child and not “I”, tends to be descriptive in nature.
Self-Awareness
An understanding that the self is separate from others in the environment.
Self-Concept
is the manner in which children define themselves using a combination of attributes, abilities, behaviors, attitudes, and values that children believe represent themselves and make them different from everyone else.
Nurturance
Adults who demonstrate warmth,acceptance, genuineness, authenticity, empathy, and respect are most likely to foster positive self-judgments in children.
Guidance
Adult interaction with children which involves both discipline and instructional approaches.
Emotional IQ
A measure of a person’s adeptness at understanding his or her own emotions and the emotions of others.
Display Rules
Some ways that children learn to display emotions include imitation, feedback, and direct instruction.
Physiological Changes
Examples of this including heart beating faster, sweating, throats become dry, this is the physical parts of emotion.
Pitfalls to Avoid When Promoting Play
Watching for Mistakes
Ignoring Play
Setting too many restrictions
Having no constraints at all.
Becoming to involved in play.
Squelching the use of creative materials.
List the Reasons Why It is Important to Understand the Implicit Rules of impersonal space:
1. Violation of personal space generates negative feelings.
2. A message is considered more impersonal as the distance between the communicators is increased.
3. The understanding of personal space may vary by culture.
Three Broad Dimensions of Self-Esteem
1. Worth- Is the extent to which people value and like themselves as well as perceive that they are valued by others.
2.Competence- The belief that one is able to accomplish tasks and achieve goals.
3. Control- The feeling on the part of individuals that they can influence the outcomes and events in their world.
The Three Types of Effective Praise
1. Specific- Is a praise that provides explicit information about what is being praised.
2. Selective- Praise which is used in only certain situations, not every child and case.
3. Positive- Comments intended to praise a child which are stated in a positive manner.
List the Four Primary Emotions
1. Happiness
2. Anger
3. Sadness
4. Fear
Affective Reflections
These are non-judgmental statements that describe the emotions of the child or adult. We use these reflections to acknowledge and validate the children’s emotions. We observe children and tell them what we see them doing regards to the emotions they may be exhibiting in a certain situation. By hearing different effective reflections, it enables children to be more precise in understanding what they are feeling. It helps children feel heard and accepted.
Reasons Why Play is Important
Problem Solving
Increase creativity
Facilitate cognitive decentering
Supports emotional growth
Increases communication skills.
Cooperation skills are increased.
Some Ways to influence the Direction of Play:
Ulterior Conversations
Underscoring
Story Telling
Prompting
Formal Pretend Proposals
Negative vs. Positive Verbal Environment
Negative-A verbal atmosphere in which the children feel unworthy, unlovable, insignificant, or imcompetent as a result of what adults do or say to them.
Positive Verbal Environment-is a verbal atmosphere in which children feel competence,worth, and control as a result of what adults say or do to them.
Negative vs. Positive Verbal Environment
Negative-A verbal atmosphere in which the children feel unworthy, unlovable, insignificant, or imcompetent as a result of what adults do or say to them.
Positive Verbal Environment-is a verbal atmosphere in which children feel competence,worth, and control as a result of what adults say or do to them.
Open vs. Closed Ended Questions
Open Ended- is a question that has many possible answers. They are used to invite conversation and allow the speaker to direct the course of conversation. The purpose is to get the children to talk about their ideas, thoughts, and emotions.

Close Ended Questions- is a question that has one answer such as yes or no. They tend to be conversations stoppers.