5.1.1 and facilitate the combustion of fuel. Inside

5.1.1 Cylinder Block


Cylinder block is
the shell of the engine; the cylinder and piston is present inside the cylinder
within which the fuel is burnt. The main function of cylinder block is to
robustly withstand and facilitate the combustion of fuel. Inside the cylinder,
the fuel mixed with air is ignited making the cycle of compression and
expansion that drives the engine. The combustion of fuel brings extreme
temperature and pressure that requires the cylinder block to be able to with
stand harsh conditions. Cooling methods for the longevity of the continuous
process supports and extends the life of cylinder block. The cylinder block is
manufactured through casting process of cast iron.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!

order now


5.1.2 Cylinder head


The cylinder head
is fixed at the upper side of the cylinder block. The function of a cylinder
head is to seal the cylinder block to avoid any leakage of air or fuel mixtures
from the cylinder and to act as a mount for the ignition system i.e. valve
train, spark plug or fuel injector. Cylinder head is manufactured by casting or
forging of cast iron or aluminum.


5.1.3 Piston


Piston is one of
the primary parts in the engine. Its function is to use the energy of expanding
gas in the cylinder to move itself in reciprocating motion. The piston is
connected to the crankshaft via a connecting rod to transfer its energy. The
reciprocating motion of piston creates an imbalance manifesting as vibration of
the engine that requires dampeners to absorb the vibration. Mechanical loss is
experienced during the transfer of linear motion in piston to rotational motion
in crankshaft.  As the energy supplied by
the piston is not continuous in nature, the rotation of the crankshaft is not
smooth. This brings the heavy flywheels into design for smoothening and
maintaining constant inertia to the crankshaft that stabilize the variable
irregular energy supply from the engine. Valves and camshaft system present
inside the cylinder head above the engine controls the supply of fuel and
removal of burnt fuel from the cylinder.


Pistons are made
from cast aluminum alloy. Component feature of the piston are the piston head
the top surface of the piston, piston pin bore a hole through the piston,
piston pin a hollow shaft that connects the piston and the connecting rod,
skirt the bottom portion of the piston, piston rings are the expandable split
ring acting as a seal between the cylinder and the piston, ring grooves the attachment
area for the piston rings and ring lands is the sealing surface of the piston


5.1.4 Connecting rod


The connecting
rod connects the piston and the crankshaft. It serves as the medium to transfer
the power from the reciprocating motion of piston to the crankshaft. The
connecting rod is made from steel and aluminum. Any mistake in the
manufacturing of connecting rod can cause a catastrophic engine failure. The
most common connecting rod used in nearly every type of engine is the cast rod,
made from molding of molten steel.


5.1.5 Crankshaft


The crankshaft is
connected to the connecting rod this is where the engine reciprocating motion
of piston is converted to rotatory motion and transferred to the flywheel. The
engine’s crankshaft is usually made of very heavy cast iron. The crankshaft’s
material has to be very strong to withstand the everlasting stress it receives
from the constant push and pull from the pistons.


5.1.6 Camshaft


The function of
camshaft is to open and close the inlet and exhaust valves of the engine at
synchronized timing to make the engine run itself smoothly. The perfection in
timing is essential to obtain maximum power and efficiency. The camshaft also drives
the distributor to synchronize spark ignition. Camshafts are usually connected
with the engine rotation i.e. the rotation of the crankshaft through a set of
gears or belt drives. It contains lobes that activate the valve train. In many
cases, 2 camshafts are present in the engine, one controls the inlet valves and
the other controls the exhaust valves. The production of camshaft is by forging
process usually made out of one piece of steel. Each cylinder of the engine
will be associated with 2 lobes of the camshaft for the inlet and exhaust
valves. The camshaft additionally has one extra lobe for the fuel pump. The
camshaft operates the lifters through its lobes; the lifters operate the rest
of the valve train. 45



5.1.7 Flywheel


The crankshaft is
attached to the flywheel. The function of flywheel is to provide an inertial
mass to store the rotational energy. It is essential as the engine only
delivers power in power strokes and during the remaining time, the rotation is
carried over by the flywheel. Flywheels assist to provide a smooth power
delivery as output. The rotational inertia of the flywheel facilitates a slower
minimum unloaded speed. The flywheel also balances the system by its weight and
rotation. The clutch or the torque converter is attached to the flywheel where
the power is further transferred to the wheels. The flywheel is manufactured
through casting process.