5.1 Askwar Hilonga is a chemical engineer who was born in Tanzania and has been able to manufacture a product that is able to clean contaminated water using nanotechnology and sand, the product is able to benefit over 70% of the households in Tanzania (BBC, 2015). It was discussed in the introduction that inventors of frugal products often study in other countries before moving back to their birthplace and start solving local issues, this is exactly what has happened in this case, Askwar studied in South Korea and due to the illnesses his family had when he was growing up due to water-borne diseases wanted to do something to help the people of Tanzania and was able to produce the ‘Nanofilter’ that can also be calibrated to eliminate specific contaminants that appear in different regions (BBC, 2015) A characteristic of frugal innovation that was mentioned before includes the product being low cost, this is not the case here with this product due to Nano technology being costly, unfortunately sand alone is unable to remove dangerous chemicals like fluoride and heavy metals so the use of Nano tech is vital, the current price is $130, however there are hopes that due to the popularity the materials will be able to be bought in bulk and this will vastly reduce the price. To combat the issues of price there has been the introduction of water stations that offer water at a very affordable price. Sustainability as a whole isn’t just a focus on the environment but also in other areas such as social sustainability and in this case study alone there has been a creation of jobs in excess of 150, this means that local people are earning money while helping to produce a product which also benefits locals, internships have also been granted for future entrepreneurs. A perfect endorsement of what was discussed previously was discussed by Askwar Hilonga (2014) who believes that employment and wealth will be created if young Africans don’t travel abroad for jobs but instead should make a difference to their local communities, in terms of the environmental stand point of sustainability initially due to the technology used to produce the filter, the assumption that the product wouldn’t be environmentally friendly was made, however due to the high costs of production the filters are reusable and promotes the practice of sustainable water management (Qu et al., 2012). 5.2 Malady is a company that was founded 1986 in South Africa by Hennie Botes, this case study is a perfect example of a company operating in Africa that is not only frugal but also extremely sustainable. The company creates housing for low-income families using eco-friendly locally sourced materials, each of the moulds is able to be used up to 50 times meaning that not only costs but resources are able to be saved. The construction of the houses is also very simple and the skills to do so can be passed on to locals quickly this in turn benefits the community and produces skilled entrepreneurs for the area at the same time. As mentioned previously frugal tends to have qualities such as cheap, easy to use and/or repair and are often made using recycled or local materials (Douglas, 2013; Rao, 2013), in the case of Moladi the construction of the houses moves away from the original brick builds and has created a cheaper alternative by removing the old inefficiencies. This case perfectly illustrates an example of frugal innovation and is also sustainable due to the reduced carbon footprint due to the reusable moulds and also the construction of the house can be less than 24 hours. The people of Africa suffer 6 key challenges when trying to implement a low-cost housing project (Botes, 2018). – lack of sufficient funds- shortage of skilled labour- lack of resources- work flow control – time constraints – wastage. Moladi is able to succeed where other projects have failed due to solving each of these issues and also being sustainable. The main difference of this from the previously discussed case is the intent to expand internationally and in some cases will have to use reverse innovation to change the product slightly to be successful in countries such as Mexico and Nepal. 5.3 The next case study picked to discuss is the Upesi Project, this case is slightly different as it is a scheme rather than a company, the Upesi Project is supported by the Intermediate Technology Development Group (ITDG) this group was established in 1995 with the sole purpose of introducing more efficient cooking stoves to areas of Kenya. Since then over 16,000 stoves have been installed and living and working conditions have been significantly increased. This has been achieved by using both recycled and local materials to produce stove liners that only require a small layer of clay to aid insulation (Opole,1988) this technique is frugal due to improving from the old solution comprising of metal drums that were expensive and not recyclable to a biomass-fired stove. In Kenya, wood shortage is a big problem and any innovation that reduces this is a benefit not only to society but also the environment as less trees will be destroyed to be used for fuel, research states that the project has been directly responsible for fuel savings of over 90 KG per month in each household using this stove. The increase in demand for clay due to the production of the stoves has had a negative effect on the soils and wetlands in Kenya, this shows the problems that occur when trying to balance frugal innovations with trying to be environmentally and socially sustainable. To counteract this problem the conservation of trees has been encouraging and the replenishment of trees has been introduced with over 5000 seeds being planted, training has been offered to the locals in the best way to conserve the soil, however a popular opinion moving forward is that regular land surveys are carried out to ensure the environment isn’t impacted too much during the production of the Upset (Gustafson, D,. 2001). 6.0 Conclusion The three cases outlined in the previous section are examples of where an opportunity to produce a sustainable frugal product has been achieved. The majority of the population are lacking basic needs such as water, food and shelter. Each of the cases aims to solve one of these issues its reported that the majority of African countries are living in worse conditions now than in the 1970s (UNDP, 2007). All the companies discussed have a similar ethos when it comes to their goal of improving the quality of living, all have aims that focus solely on benefiting the poor people of Africa. The key points that the analysis shows are that in each case study frugal innovation has been able to impact the lives of the people in each country they operate in for the better. The results of this report focus specifically on the definitions and characteristics of Frugal innovation in Africa and if there is a correlation with sustainability, a theme which hasn’t been discussed in its entirely in research before.Both the Literature review and Analysis has identified and recognized the problems that Africa has and their need for more frugal innovations. Frugal innovation in Africa can be sustainable and the research has proven this statement, with the use of local and recycled resources both in the product itself and the manufacturing process, a frugal product can be sustainable and really benefit the people it’s being built for. It is possible to achieve social and environmental sustainability through frugal innovation. There are some limitations to the report including the use of some cases that may not have been recorded from the literature even though a systematic searching approach was adopted, also there are a large volume of cases that add further weight to the argument of, if frugal innovation can be sustainable in Africa although they are missing from the analysis.