630 Flashcards Oct. 9

major areas of Put Reading First (2001)
phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension
phoneme
smallest unit of sound that makes up words (44)
grapheme
written representation of a phoneme (26)
Phonics instruction
teaching the relationship between letters (graphemes) and sounds (phonemes)
alphabetic principle
understanding that there are systematic and predictable relationships between written letters and spoken sounds
Synthetic phonics
Children learn how to convert letters or letter combinations into sounds, then how to blend the sounds together to form recognizeable words
Analytic phonics
Children learn how to analyze letter-sound relationships in previously learned words.

They do not pronounce sounds in isolation.

Analogy-based phonics
Children learn to use parts of word families they know to identifity words they don’t that have similar parts.
phonics through spelling
Children learn to segment words into phonemes and to make words by writing letters for phonemes
Embedded phonics
Children are taught letter-sound relationships during the reading of connected texts. (Since children encouter different letter-sound relationships as they read, this approach is not systematic or explicit.
Onset-rime phonics instruction
Children learn to identify the sound of the letter or letters before the first vowel (onset) in a one-syllable word and teh sound of the remaining part of the word (rime)
cognitive clarity
knowing what you are trying to do and understanding were you are trying to go and why you are going there, opposite is cognitive confusion(Farstrup & Samuels, 2002)
3 major components of motivation (engagement)
self-confidence, beliefs about why you succeed or fail, and seeing the activity to be learned as pleasureable
Stahl, Duffy-Hester, and Stahl (1998)
There are several types of good phonics instruction. There is no research base to support the superiority of any one particular type.
National Reading Panel (2000) – phonics
Explicit and systematic phonics is superior to nonsystematic or no phonics, but there is no significant difference in effectiveness among the kinds of systematic phonics instruction, no difference in effectiveness between tutoring, small-group, or whole-class phonics instruction
Bryant, Bradley, Maclean, & Crossland, (1989)
Phonemic awareness is one of the best predictors of success in learning to read.
sequential decoding
the ability to look at all the letters in an unknown word and associate sounds with some of the letters
Grossen (1997)
Decodable text might be required for beginning reading instruction.
Hiebert (1999)
Children should read text that provides practice with high-frequency words, along with opportunities to apply decoding skills and use meaning-based clues
Nagy & Anderson (1984)
For every word you know, you can quickly learn 6 or 7 other words that share some of the same morphemes
ratio of real reading and writing time to phonics instruction
3:1
breakdown of time in a Four Blocks Classroom
30-40 minutes guided reading, 30-40 minutes self-selected reading/teacher read-aloud, 30-40 minutes writing, 30-40 minutes working with words
Clarke (1998)
Children who had regularly invented spellings were superior to others on measures of word decoding at the end of the year.
Making Words
manipulative activity in which children learn how to look for patterns in words and how changing just one letter or where a letter is placed changes the whole word
Using Words You Know
activity designed to help students learn to use the words they already know how to decode and spell many other words
Reading/Writing Ryhmes
activity that gives students practice using patterns to decode and spell hundreds of words