Knowles)Adult learners are self-directed, take responsibility for decisionsRequired: Explanative, experiential, problem-solving, immediate-use learning; tasks rather than memorization. Focus on process, not content (case studies, role-playing, simulations)Instructors are facilitators, not lecturers; must allow for different backgrounds and skill levels of studentsAll hail experience (including mistakes)! Solve problems rather than dwell on content!
Adult learning theory
(K.P. Cross)The CAL (Characteristics of Adults as Learners) model.An attempt to integrate andragogy (Knowles), experiential learning (Rogers) and lifespan psychology.
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Personal characteristics:1 Aging: (Decreased sensory-motor abilities and increased intelligence)2 Life phases3 Developmental stages (both refer to things such as marriage, job, retirement)Situational characteristics:1 Part-time v Full-time2 Voluntary v CompulsoryCapitalize on experience of participants while adapting to aging limitations; challenge them to move to advanced stages of personal development and allow choice in availability and organization of program
Experiential learning theory
(C. Rogers)Two types of learning:Cognitive (meaningless)–academicExperiential (significant)–applied, addresses needs and wants of learnerExperiential learning:1 personal involvement, self-initiated, evaluated by learner and has pervasive effect(s).2 equivalent to personal change and growthBelief is that all students have propensity to learn, must be facilitated by instructor by:1 creating positive climate for learning, 2 clarifying purpose, 3 organizing and making resources available, 4 balancing intellectual and emotional components, 5 sharing feelings/thoughts but not dominating conversationLearning facilitated when: 1 students participate and have control/direction in learning process, 2 direct confrontation with learning, 3 self-evaluation is min method of assessment (also, love and learning and openness to change!)Influenced by psychotherapy, humanismPrinciples: learning must be relevant, external threats must be abated, self-initiation!
Information processing theory
(G. Miller)Chunking: short-term memory can only hold 5-9 chunks o’ infoTOTE: ‘Test-Operate-Test-Exit’ if a tested goal is not achieved, operation performed to achieve it; cycle repeated until goal is achieved or abandonedPrinciples:Short-term memory limited to only 7 chunks o’ infoPlanning (in TOTE units) is fundamental cognitive processBehavior is hierarchically organized
(H. Gardner) There are a number of distinct forms of intelligence that each individual possesses to some degree such as linguistic, musical, logical-mathematical, spatial, body-kinesthetic, intrapersonal (insight), interpersonal (social skills).Learning should focus on particular intelligences of each person i.e. play to your strengths.
Cultural context is important; cultures emphasize/cultivate certain intelligences over others1 Individuals should be encouraged to use their preferred intelligences2 Activities should appeal to many kinds of intelligence3 Assessments should measure multiple forms of intelligence
(R. Schank)Focuses on structure of knowledge in context of understanding languageScripts=generalized episodes (plus unique events and specific memories) which allow individuals to make inferences to understand informationScript theory: Basis for dynamic model of memory, used to explain language processing and higher thinking skillsPrinciples:Conceptualization: an act or doing something to an objectConceptualizations can be analyzed as small number of primitive actsMemory is episodic, organized in scriptsScripts allow people to make inferences and understand discourseHigher level expectations created by goals/plans
(J. Lave)Learning is function of its situation (context, culture, particular activity)Social interaction is crucial componentIndividual beginners move from periphery to center: becoming more active and expertCognitive apprenticeship: students acquire tools, in and out of school, advanced through social interaction in authentic activity.(authentic) active perception over (inauthentic) concepts1) authentic context2) social collaboration
(A. Bandura)Observing and modeling behavior/attitudes/emotionality of othersContinuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive, behavioral, and environmental influences1) Attention2) Retention3) Motor Reproduction4) MotivationEx: Commercials “Drinking this will make you popular!” etc.Individuals organize and rehearse behavior(s) before enacting them; individuals are more likely to adopt behavior if it results in the outcomes valued, if model has admired status and if behavior has functional value
Weiner)The way individuals interpret events influences their thoughts and behaviorPeople try to determine motivations/attribute causes to behaviorAttribution:1) Person perceives/observes behavior2) Person believes behavior to be intentional, deliberate3) Person attribute behavior to internal or external causesAchievement attributed to: ability, effort, task difficulty, luckCausal dimensions of behavior: locus of control (internal v external), stability (whether changes over time), controllability (can causes be controlled?)
Cognitive dissonance theory
(L. Festinger)Individuals seek consistency among beliefs/opinionsWhen there is an inconsistency, something must be eliminated to lessen dissonance such as: attitude will change to accommodate behaviorStrength of dissonance based on: number of dissonant beliefs and importance of beliefTo eliminate dissonance:1) reduce importance of beliefs2) add more consonant beliefs3) change dissonant beliefs so no longer inconsistentGreatest dissonance created when two alternatives are equally attractive
(J. Bruner)Learning is an active process–new ideas based on past/current knowledgeCognitive structure provides meaning and organization to experiencesInstructor should encourage students to discover principles by themselves. Active dialogue/socratic learning.
1) Readiness: experience and context that make student willing/able to learn2) Spiral organization: instruction structured so it can be grasped easily by students3) Going beyond information given: information designed to facilitate extrapolation
(F. Marton & N. Entwistle)The experience of learning from the student’s perspective, phenomenological.
Data collected from learners themselves.Students differ in how they relate to information they read (deep v. surface) and how they trie to organize their learning (holistic v. atomistic)Research focused on learner, listening to experience of learner must occur in naturalistic setting involving actual content.