The Six Steps of Vocabulary Instruction Source: Vocabulary for the Common Core by Robert Marzano and Julia Simms
1. Provide a Description, Explanation, or Example of the New Term2. Students Restate the Description, Explanation, or Example in Their Own Words3. Students Construct a Picture or Symbol of the New Term4.
Engage in Activities such as Comparing/Contrasting, Classifying, and Metaphors 5. Students Discuss Terms with One Another6. Involve Students in Games
Phonological Skills Resource: http://www.readingrockets.org/article/development-phonological-skills
Word Awareness (Tracking words in sentences)
Responsiveness to Rhyme and Alliteration
Onset and Rime Manipulation–Producing a Rhyme
Phonemic Awareness–Initial, Medial, Final Sounds
Introduce high-frequency sound spellings first
Introduce a few short vowels
Introduce letter sounds that relate to letter names first
Separate letters/sounds that look or sound similar
Provide ample time and explicit instruction for blending sounds
Provide a logical sequence of skills from easier to more complex spellings
Phonics Assessment Resource: https://www.teachervision.com/skill-builder/phonics/48604.html?page=1&
Nonsense Word Fluency
Must analyze results to determine intervention
Effective Fluency Instruction http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/article/5-surefire-strategies-developing-reading-fluency
Model fluent reading–read aloud to them with expression and from different genres
Do repeated readings in class–(read aloud, discuss phrasing, echo read, choral read)
Promote phrased reading in class (poems work well)
Enlist tutors to help out
Try a reader’s theater in class
Stages of Fluency Development;Resource: http://www.
Level 1: Reads word-by-word with 2-3 word phrases at times. Usually monotone.
Level 2: Reads primarily in 2-3 word phrases. May have some word-by-word reading at times.
Level 3: Reads primarily in 3-4 word phrase groups. Most phrasing is appropriate to the meaning of the text.
Level 4: Reads primarily in large, meaningful phrase units. Read with expression most of the time.
Teaching Reading Comprehension;http://www2.ed.gov/admins/lead/read/rb/rbreading.pdf;
Using graphic and semantic organizers
Recognize story structure
Assessing Reading Comprehension;http://www.ldonline.org/spearswerling/Assessment_of_Reading_Comprehension
Cloze passages: Passages are presented with blanks in sentences; students fill in missing word
Question/Answer: Students read a passage and answer questions about it
Retellings: Student orally reads passage and tells examiner about the story (usually scored by a scoring system)
Best Practices for Struggling ReadersResource: http://www.bestpracticesweekly.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/BPW.4.1.What-Really-Matters-When-Working-With-Struggling-Readers.pdf
Use multiple approaches to teach decoding skills
Be sure that certified teachers are working with struggling readers, not too much time with paraprofessionals
Struggling readers should spend more time reading than their peers
Invest in teacher expertise, not solely on programs
Working with Students with Dyslexia;Resource: http://dyslexiahelp.umich.edu/professionals/dyslexia-school/working-memory
Students can have working memory problems, which impacts comprehension.
Provide repetitve practice to increase automaticity
Provide meaningful contexts
Use visual/graphic organizers
Break a task into parts, teach them separately, then work on integration
Work on phonological awareness