A waldoe is a machine which magnifies strength and increases dexterity.
Intellectual waldoes extend the mind = 9 Learning Strategies
Why use the Dick & Carey Model or other model of ISD to create instruction/training?
A systematic design approach considers what learners already know and evokes an examination of the vast range of activities that will best meet learning needs. Systematic design insures tie-in between various learner needs, the instructional objectives & the range of learning activities. ISD provides a delivery system that is empirical and reproduceable.
creation of knowledge
Name 2 kinds/modes of learning
assimilation = add to what you already know.accommodation = more complex rearrangement of knowledge.
Name two ways in which we accomodate new knowledge.
accretion = new wine in old bottles.
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routine fact learning.tuning = minor modification of schema …
sometimes entire schema are re-done.
3 Types of knowledge
1. declarative = knowledge that, or about.2. procedural = knowing how. (perform A then B); it is order specific & time dependent.3. Conditional = knowing when and why to use knowledge.
Ill-structured knowledge domains
Highly structured knowledge domains
math, hard sciences
teach the content and the strategy. (an intervention tool).
information about information
ISD use of reciprocal teaching
ISD includes a cognitive strategy in the lesson, i.e., use a chart/frame or chunking.
Name 2 types of Schema/schemata
process schema = knowledge of how to do something. data/state schema = knowledge of
wrapping something new into what we already know.
We try to find a schema that makes it make sense. This is a cognitive process. We attach meaning to its events.
Functions of schemata
directs perception; makes learning and comprehension possible; aids recall.
Schemata as scaffolding
schemata can serve to scaffold learning through: inferential elaboration; orderly memory search; aids editing, abstracting & summarizing; permits inferential reconstruction
Name a perfect schemata
There is NO ONE perfect schemata.
Why does ISD use reciprocal teaching?
ISD places an emphasis on teaching a strategy along with content because the objectives focused style of ISD training provides ample opportunity to do so.
Metacognition skills & reciprocal learning are tools the IDer can use to promote learning.
Metacognition & Reciprocal Teaching:
these are tools for the IDer. teaching a strategy along with the content. It can be as simple as using an outline to present content.
strategy learning improves content learning. Summarizing, questioning, clarifying & predicting are tools to be used.
Name the 4 Families of Cognitive strategies
Spatial, Bridging, Chunking, Multipurpose.
Examples of spatial strategies
Frames type 1; Frames type 2; concept mapping.
Examples of bridging strategies
Advance organizer, metaphor, Frames type 2.
Examples of multipurpose strategies:
general purpose, rehearsal, imagery, mneumonics
Examples of chunking strategies:
Topologies; typologies; groups
Characteristics of Chunking strategies
comprise a large assortment of organizing strategies. Chunking enables the rational ordering, classifying or arrangement of complex arrays. Aids intellectual managment of large and/or complex amounts of data. Chunking is preparatory.
Rehearsal or other strategies are required for further processing.
In design the appropriate chunking strategy, suitable to the knowledge domain should be made apparent. Chunking is ubiquitous to knowledge domains & we are not aware of it; IDers need to make primary chunking obvious.
9 cognitive strategies
Frames 1; Frames 2; chunking; advance organizer; concept mapping; metaphor/simile; mneumonic; imagery; rehearsal. These strategies are the primary contributions of cognitive science to ID.
coming to know thru perception, comprehension, thinking, memory and attention.
Cognitive theorists focus on:
internal processes that are impossible to observe. Tichner, Piaget, Bruner, Bandura.
Learning is a mental activity that is
an internal structuring of knowledge.
What are the Instructional Domains?
Cognitive, affective, psychomoter. These refer to whether instruction is intended to bring about changes in thinking, attitude, and/or performance skills.
Characteristics of Frames type 1
spatial; provides a big picture; it is a grid, matrix, or framework for representing knowledge; intends to show organization; includes LABELS of main ideas in rows & columns.
Use a frame 1 in Intro, within lesson, & at end/review.
Example of Frame 1
Dr. Cohen used Frame type 1 to teach romantic drama structure. This type of frame can aid group discussion.
Characteristics of Frame type 2
Looks like type 1 on surface. Slot completion is driven by a law-like principle or statement. The principle is used to logically elicit from personal memory, the knowledge that is to be placed in the grids or visual array.
Frames type 2 use with students
Students must be able to grasp (intellectually) the logical operation that drives the frame. Often TINKERING is required when using Frames 2. Concreteness varies; think broadly.
Problems with FRames 2
teachers try to over structure ill-structured knowledge; teachers fear that students will supply the wrong info; solution: teach materials THEN use Frame 2 to elicit performance; it is hard to figure out the structure of some Knowledge Domains.
Characteristics of Concept Mapping
Spatial. Concept mapping is a way of graphically displaying concepts and relationships between or among concepts; concepts are placed in a visual array. Displays concepts & relationships.
To create Concept Maps
extract broad concepts then map the relationships. Use legends to name relationships.
Concept mapping and remembering.
Concept mapping is better for remembering than outlining.
Characteristics of Concept mapping
Can be hiearchical & linear. They are similar to outlinin, but all outlines are hierarchical, only 1 type of concept map is hierarchical. Concept maps are coded both verbally & imaginally.
The nature of concepts is
A name for objects (events, things) together with its meaning.
Can procedural knowledge be used with concept mapping?
yes, but procedural knowledge is restricted to chain maps when using concept mapping.
Advance Organizers created by?
Ausubel (1968). It is a bridging strategy.
Characteristics of AOs
They are not likely to be created by students; AOs are restricted to helping students learn. They come before a lesson section (intro); is based on students’ prior knowledge; brief & abstract; a bridge linking new info w/old. It is a restatement of prior knowledge; it provides students w/a structure of the new info.
What kind of material is used with AOs?
Uses Verbal Material to teach declarative, procedural, and conditional learning.
Who invented the Advance Organizer?
David Ausubel in 1960. Cognitivist. Subsumption theory= during meaningful learning the person organizes or subsumes or incorporates the new knowledge into the old.
What are some variables that affect effectiveness of AOs?
The learner, attributes of the text; It is a bridging strategy.
To create an Advance Organizer
examine new lesson for prerequisite knowledge; ask if student knows prereqs; reteach if necessary; List/summarize major ideas of new lesson; Write para emphasizing major general principles, similarities of old & new. MAIN topics/subjects MUST BE covered in same sequence as in the AO.
Characteristics of Mnemonics
they have an extended history re: memorization of literature in pre-literate society.
Storytellers used mneumonics. Called artificial memory.
Name 4 types of mneumonics
Single use/first letterKeywordChain = 30 days has Sept..
..Method of loci = place items in familiar places and tour the place to remember.
How to use mneumonics
Useful for low structure.
Characteristics of Imagery
Multipurpose; works best w/concrete info; useful for declarative, procedural & conditional knowledge; not restricted to verbal knowledge; encoding is both verbal & imaginable.
When using imagery
at first students should be prompted, to form a mental picture; teachers should model the use of imagery and share their own.
This is a bridging strategy. They can carry meaning of some material as well as literal language; metaphor is a cognitive strategy shared across age.
When using metaphors
select the metaphor; emphasize the metaphor; insure context is established; provide imagery instruction; emphasize similarities; provide opportunities for rehearsal of similarities