9 Learning Strategies

3 Types of Knowledge:


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Give a definition of the 3 types of knowledge.

1.  Declarative knowledge is knowledge of, or about.


2.  Procedural knowledge is knowing how (perform A then B AND it is order specific and time dependent).


3.  Conditional knowledge is knowing when and why to use knowledge. (metacomprehension)

Define cognition

Cognition is the creation of knowledge

(Piaget, 1952)

What are the kinds/modes of learning?

1. assimiliation: add to what you already know/schema you have.

2. accomodation: this is a more complex arrangement of knowledge that involves accretion and/or tuning


a.) accretion is putting new wine into old bottles; routine fact learning is a form of accretion.

b.) tuning is the minor modification of schema and is a more complex process. Sometimes whole schema is re-done. (Rumelhardt & Norman, 1978)

What are the functions of schema/schemata?







(There is no one perfect schemata!)

Schemata direct perception, making learning and comprehension possible and aid in recall.


Schemata can serve to scaffold learning (a hook to hang new knowledge on) through


* inferential elaboration

* orderly memory search

*aids editing, abstracting & summarizing

*permit inferential reconstruction.

IDT places an emphasis on teaching a strategy along with content because the objectives focus style of ISD training provides premium opportunity to do so.


Discuss reciprocal teaching for IDT.

Reciprocal teaching is an instructional intervention that can be used to enhance learning. Reciprocal teaching involves teaching content concurrently with a learning strategy.  It can be as simple as using an outline to present content.  In IDT we include a cognitive strategy as a part of the lesson, i.e., we use a chart, frame, chunking method of presenting the information. 

While some metacognition develops naturally in students, reciprocal teaching can be introduced as an intellectual waldoe!

How do the 9 learning strategies serve as intellectual waldoes?

A waldoe is a machine which magnifies strength and increases dexterity (Robert Henlein).


Intellectual waldoes extend the mind through the use of the 9 learning strategies.  The 9 strategies are learning interventions that can be used to enhance metacognition beyond normally developed mental capacity.

How are metacognition and reciprocal teaching important to IDT?
Metacognition and reciprocal teaching are intervention tools.  Teaching a strategy along with the content enhances learning.  Strategy learning improves content learning and is therefore reciprocal.  Summarizing, questioning, clarifygin and predicting have all been shown to improve learning.  They are metacognitive processes.
What implications are there for IDT regarding the structure of knowledge domains?

Some knowledge domains are highly structured (mature) domains of knowledge. Math and hard sciences are highly structured domains. There are many solid theories upon which to build knowledge.


Arts, psychology and social sciences are ill-structured knowledge domains. They require different learning/teaching stratgies because of the variety and plenitude of theories proposed for the subject matter.

Chunking is a linear/spatial learning strategy.  It comprises a large assortment of organizing stratgies.


Chunking enables the rational ordering ,classifying,arranging of complex arrays. Aids in intellectual management of large and/or complex amounts of data.


Chunking is preparatory. Needs to be combined with rehearsal or other strategy for further processing.

EXamples: other side.

Chunking examples: linear / spatial

outlines, grouping, clustering, maps = chain maps

history = timelines

space orientation

procedures = steps

taxonomies and topologies


sorting= cause/effect; similarity/difference; form/function; advantage/disadvantage

Name the four families of cognitive strategies.

4 Families of Cognitive strategies chunked




There are four families of cognitive strategies.

Four Families of Cognitive Strategies:


Spatial = Frames type I, Frames type II, Concept Mapping


Bridging = advance organizers, metaphors, Frames II


Multipupose = general purpose strategies, rehearsal, imagery, mnemonics


Chunking = taxonomies, topologies, groups

Frames type I is a spatial strategy:


Frame type I can be used in the Intro, Within, and at the end/Review of a lesson.


What are the characteristics of a Frame type I?

Frame Type I (spatial)


-provides a big picture

– it is a grid, a matrix, or a framework for representing knowledge.

-intends to show organization.

– includes LABELS of main ideas in rows & columns.


(Frames can aid group discussion)

(Do NOT use TOO MANY frames= causes cog overload)

Spatial Strategies

1. Frames type I





2. Frames type II

3. Concept Maps








Don’t use too many frames.

Frames can aid group discussion.


Use a frame in the INTRO, Within, and at the END/REview.

Using chunking strategies:

In IDT the appropriate chunking strategy, suitable to the knowledge domain should be selected and made obvious during instruction.

Chunking is ubiquitous to knowledge domains ; we are not aware of it – fish is not aware of water – IDers need to make primary chunking OBVIOUS. Point it out because it is the first step in aiding metacognition.

There are two chunking types


1. Linear/Spatial strategies


2. Classification strategies

Chunking continued:


1. Linear/spatial strategies include





II.; Classification

taxonomy, topology

multipurpose sorting: cause/effect; advantage/disadvantage; similar/different; form/function.