Non Fiction Structure

Description
the author provides several details of something to give the reader a mental picture
Compare and Contrast
the author discusses similarities and differences between people, things, concepts, or ideas
Order and Sequence
the author provides readers with chronological events or a list of steps in a process
Problem and Solution
the author gives information about a problem and explains one or more solutions
Cause and Effect
the author describes an event or several events (cause) and the events that follow (effect)
Compare and Contrast
In recent years, email has eclipsed traditional postal mail (often called “snail mail”). Both means of communication allow writers to connect with another person one- on-one. Both require the writer to write and communicate clearly. While snail mail can take days to be delivered, email is delivered almost instantly. In addition, some writers believe that taking the time to print out a typed document or hand write a letter leads to more thoughtful communication.
Problem and Solution
Doctors have identified extended periods of sitting—at desks, on couches, etc.—as a potential cause of several conditions including obesity, heart failure, and some types of cancer. Since it is important that all Americans spend less time sitting, there are several solutions to consider. Furniture designers are producing more standing and convertible desks. Anyone who works at a desk should consider using a convertible desk that can be raised for standing or lowered for sitting. In schools and offices, opportunities for standing and walking (such as standing meetings or lessons that involve moving around the room) should be encouraged.
Compare and Contrast
Childhood and adulthood are both phases in a person’s life. During a person’s childhood, he or she learns skills, acquires knowledge, and develops talents that will help him or her become a successful adult. Most of a child’s needs are attended to by his or her parents. A child doesn’t have to worry about finding a place to live, preparing food, or even buying clothing. In adulthood, people use the skills they developed when they were younger to create their own independent lives. They become responsible for their own food and shelter, and they must work—using their knowledge and talents—to earn money to support themselves.
Problem and Solution
While the vast majority of Americans can read and write, there are still some citizens who cannot. As a result, those individuals are unable to actively participate in the work force, be informed voters, or understand contracts and bills they are responsible for. One way to increase national literacy (the number of Americans who can read and write) is to provide free reading instruction at local libraries. Volunteers from high schools and universities, along with literacy specialists, could provide free instruction to anyone who visits. Another way to address the problem is to require a literacy assessment during high school and before graduation, which would ensure that no one leaves high school without learning to read.
Order and Sequence
Making cookies isn’t hard, especially if you use premade cookie dough. Begin by preheating the oven to the temperature indicated on the packet. Next, use oil to grease a cookie sheet. Then, break apart the cookie dough and place the pieces about an inch away from each other. When the oven is heated, put the cookie sheet into the oven. Follow the directions on the package for cooking time. You may think the cookies don’t look “done” when the time is up, but that is probably not the case. Remove the cookie sheet from the oven, and then transfer the cookies from the sheet to a rack to cool.
Cause and Effect
The number of people living in poverty in the United States has increased in the last ten years. There are many reasons why more people are facing the challenges of poverty than ever before. First, a declining job market has led to more people being unemployed. While many unemployed workers do qualify for weekly pay from the government, the amount of unemployment money is much less than what they would earn in a job. As a result, people without jobs tend to see their standard of living decline and can end up living in poverty.
Description
The waiting room was completely silent, except for the canned laughter coming from a daytime talk show complaining about “kids these days” that came from the television. Straight-backed chairs lined the walls, and a handful of patients sat staring glumly into dog-eared magazines. One patient cleared his throat loudly. The others looked up, glanced away before making eye contact, and stared at their magazines again. A faint scent of rubbing alcohol and latex hung over the room, highlighting the clinical atmosphere.
Cause and Effect
College enrollment is at an all-time high. Now, more young people than ever before are choosing to attend college. There are several reasons why this is the case. One reason is that the types of jobs available in the American economy are becoming increasingly technical and specialized. Years ago, workers in factories were able to earn good incomes and maintain middle class lifestyles. Now, many companies have moved their manufacturing operations outside of the United States. So, workers must be qualified for more technical or specialized jobs—which often require a college degree—to achieve a middle class income.
Order and Sequence
Some people believe that injuries are an unavoidable part of being an athlete. However, proper preparation can save an athlete from many of the most
common stress and repetitive motion injuries. Before playing any sport, an athlete must be sure she is hydrated. Start by drinking at least eight ounces of water. Next, stretch the major muscles, especially those that will be used most in the sport. Spending 45 minutes to an hour stretching can save an athlete days or even weeks of recovery. Then, ensure that all equipment fits properly and is in good condition. Finally, use all approved safety devices—including helmets and padding—even during practice.
Compare and Contrast
When purchasing goods or services, most consumers have a choice of using cash or a credit card. Credit cards are very convenient. They take up very little space in most wallets, and users don’t have to worry about having enough cash on hand for an immediate purchase—as long as the credit limit is sufficient. However, while credit cards may be more convenient in the moment, paying with cash is a better long-term habit. Credit cards charge interest, which is an additional charge on top of whatever the product or service costs. If a credit card user doesn’t pay his bill immediately, the interest compounds (increases), which can make an everyday purchase turn into long-term debt. On the other hand, using cash means a person is only using only money he has and is not accumulating debt to pay in the future. Those who rely solely on cash have fewer concerns about growing debt.