Vitamins

Water-Soluble Vitamins
  • dissolve in water
  • pass easily into bloodstream
  • for short time so you need them everyday
  • don’t store
Vitamin C
  • Maintain healthy capillaries bones, skin, hair, teeth
  • Enzymes that form and take care of collagen
  • heal wounds
  • resists infection
  • aids in absorption of iron
Thiamin (Vitamin B1)
  • helps turn carbohydrates into energy
  • muscle coordination
  • healthy nervous system
  • dificiency
  • beriberi
  • nausea
  • apathy
  • loss of appetite
Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
  • helps body release energy from carbs, fats, and proteins
  • body growth
  • red cell production
  • destroid by light
  • deficiency is rare
  • gritty eyes
  • sore tounge
  • mouth and lips sores
  • dry flaky skin
  • milk ans milk products
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
  • Helps body release energy from carbs, fats, and proteins
  • healthy nervous system
  • make non-essential amino acids
Folate (B9)
  • folic acid or folacin
  • teams with B12 to build red blood cells dna
  • helps body use proteins
  • protect against heart disease
  • prevents birth defects
  • green, leafy vegetables
  • amemia
Vitamin B12
  • helps body process carbs, fats, proteins
  • healthy nervous system
  • build red blood cells and dna
  • except fortified cerals not found in plant food
  • older adults take supplements becasue they have trouble absorbing
  • pernicious anemia
Pantothenic acid (vitamin b5)
  • Helps body release energy from carbs fats and proteins
  • helps body produce cholesterols
  • normal groth and development
  • healthy nervous system
  • Deficiency is rare because it s abundant in food
Biotin
  • Deficiency is rare
Fat-Soluble Vitamins
  • Absorbed and transported by fat
  • excess vitamins stored in liver
  • body can draw on vitamins when needed
  • large amounts can be damaging
Vitamin A
  • Three forms:
  • retinol
  • Retinal
  • Retinoic acid
  • Good vision and help maintain tissues ans skin
  • reproduction and growth Infections in respirtory tract
  • night and toital blindness
  • beta- carotene Balanced diet is unlikely to produce vitamin A toxicity
  • deep orange or dark green color
Vitamin D
  • Maintains levels of calcium Proper bone growth
  • “sunshine” vitamin
  • foo
  • nutrient added to milk
  • egg yolks or fatty fish
  • bowed legs
  • adults bones are weak and sometimes deformed
  • osteomalacia
Vitamin E
  • Valued as an antioxidant
  • protects cells from oxidation damage, especially in lungs
  • found in many foods
  • processing, cooking, storing may affect vitamin cintent
Vitamin K
  • Helps blood clot
  • bone health
  • found in many foods mainly veggies
  • body can produce
Calcium
  • Regulate blood clotting, nerve activity, other body processes
  • muscle contraction, healthy teeth and gums
  • osteoprosis
  • calcium deficency
  • bones become weak and fragile
Phopshporus
  • Works with calcium to build strong bones and teeth
  • release energy from carbs, fats and prteins
  • helps body build cells and tissues
Magnesium
  • Helps build bones and make protiens
  • helps nerves and muscle work normally
  • proper heart function
Sodium, Chloride, and Potassium
  1. Sodium
  • regulate blood pressure
  • too much can lead to high blood pressure
  1. Chloride
  • Transmits nerve signals
  • helps maintain acidity levels to dijest food
  1. Potassium
  • maintain steady heart beat
  • table salt gives you sodium and chloride
Trace-Minerals
  • Microminerals
  • need small amounts
  • can get all from food
  • excess amounts can be harmful
Iron
  • Essential for making HEMOGLOBIN
  • carrires red blood cells to all body cells
  • iron dificiency anemia
Iodine
  • Stored in thyroid
  • too much or too little can cause thyroid problems
Zinc
  • Helps enzymes
  • aids immune system
  • wounds heal, normal growth in children
Selenuim
  • Antioxidant
  • Maintain structure of red blood cells, hair, nails,
Copper
  • Helps form hemoglobin and collagen