Abnormal Psychology

One variable must be manipulated or changed, while another is measured. Any other variable that could affect the measured variable must be controlled. There must be at least two groups of subjects (or participants). And the data must be analyzed to determine the likelihood of the outcome occurring simply by chance. Then you must design a research method to test the hypothesis using independent and dependent variables.

In order for a study to be an experiment, there must be at least one of each of two types of roofs. There must be at least one experimental group, and there must be at least one control group. When we manipulate the independent variable, we produce at least two conditions. The group that gets the unusual condition is, by convention, referred to as the experimental group. The group that gets the usual or normal condition is referred to as the control group. If we manipulate the independent variable in such a way as to produce more than two conditions, then we will have more than two groups.

We can have more than one experimental group, or more than one control group, but e must still have at least one of each. The purpose of the control group is to allow us to compare measurements of the experimental group’s behavior, with an equivalent group. That is why the extraneous variables must be controlled. If we do a good job of controlling the extraneous variables in our experiment, the only difference between what the experimental group and the control group experience in our experiment is the independent variable.

Therefore, any differences we find between the behavior of our experimental group and our control group should be caused by our manipulation of the independent variable. This is how we establish cause and effect: If X then Y. Using the hypothesis, “There is no significant difference in the anxiety level of pupils and the performance in an exam”. I would want to create two groups of subjects. For One group (the experimental group), I will create a condition that leads to an unusually high level of anxiety in my subjects, for example, shorter time to complete the exam or more invigilators present.

For the other group (the control group) will try to create a condition that produces only the normal level of anxiety those students might experience in taking a est.. The independent variable in this example would be ‘anxiety,’ as this is the variable that is manipulated and that influences the behavior. And the ‘students performances of their exams,’ would be the dependent variable as this is influenced by the independent variable and will be measured. This study would be internally valid as well as being externally valid. As it avoids confounding, this is more than one independent variable acting at the same time.

And I would have the same test, same time, same location etc. Increasing the external validity. After setting up my groups, would create the anxiety condition on one and not the other, and then administer the test. After both groups have been tested, I would use descriptive statistics (describing what the data shows) to summarize the performance of each of the groups. I therefore would use statistical methods (helps to protect against biases in evaluating data) to conclude and determine whether or not any difference in the performance of my groups is statistically significant I. E. Whether the difference is likely to have occurred by chance rather than because of my manipulation of the independent variable (anxiety). ) Clearly outline the THREE prominent historical approaches to abnormal behavior and provide a clear description Of each approach, citing specific examples in each. There are three prominent historical approaches to abnormal behavior and not surprisingly it has been changed due to low level of success rate these treatments have, to be fair knowledge of certain issues in our lives didn’t come as easy as it did now thanks to many psychologist who have discovered various of key theories.

The first historical approach will be writing about is “The Supernatural Tradition” which is the most used back in those days. They say abnormal behavior is related to supernatural causes outside our bodies which taunts and haunts us; supernatural beings that seem to be stronger than the human such as demons, spirits, magical creations of their fictional minds, these all enter the social environment lives of abnormal behavior patients. Often the supernatural model is reflected in informal superstitions or beliefs.

Sometimes belief in the supernatural model leads to laws or other societal efforts to control abnormal behavior. For instance, in the middle Ages a book called the “Witch Hammer” detailed how to identify and punish witches. The Salem Witch trials are another tragic example of a misguided belief. The judges of the witch trials were mostly intelligent and well intentioned. Their goal was lofty, to protect their society from evil. Sadly, they failed to realize that the evil inhabiting their town was not witches, but their own belief in the supernatural model.

The second historical approach I will be outlining is “The Biological Tradition”; they say that abnormal disorders are attributed to disease or biochemical imbalances. The Greek contribution The Greek physician Hippocrates ridiculed deontological accounts of illness ND insanity. Instead, Hippocrates hypothesized that abnormal behavior, like other forms of disease, had natural causes. Health depended on maintaining a natural balance within the body, specifically a balance of four body fluids (which were also known as the four humors): blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile.

Hippocrates argued that various types of disorder or psychopathology resulted from either an excess or a deficiency of one of these four fluids. The Hippocratic perspective dominated medical thought in Western countries until the middle of the nineteenth century. People trained n the Hippocratic tradition viewed “disease” as a unitary concept. In other words, physicians did not distinguish between mental disorders and other types of illness. All problems were considered to be the result of an imbalance of body fluids, and treatment procedures were designed in an attempt to restore the ideal balance.

Four fluid theories Galen a Roman physician adopted Hippocratic theory and advocated that the four fluids relate to the Greek environmental concepts such as heat (blood), dryness (black bile), moisture ( yellow bile) and cold ( phlegm). Each fluid was related to one quality. Excess of one or more fluids were treated by regulating the environment to increase or decrease heat, dryness, moisture and cold depending on the deficiency of the fluid. Example King Charles the sixth, when he got sick he was treated according to the following concept of Galen.

He was moved to less stressful countryside environment to restore the balance of his body fluids. Rest, good diet and exercise were recommended. Techniques of Treatment Bloodletting, a technique where a measured amount of blood was removed by leeches to minimize aggressive tendencies. Induced vomiting was used to educe Depression . The diagnosed person was forced to eat tobacco and half boiled cabbage for vomiting. Syphilis A sexually transmitted disease caused by a bacterial micro-organism entering the brain.

The person having syphilis developed behavior patterns and cognitions of a psychotic disorder I. E. Schizophrenia and paralysis. The symptoms of Schizophrenia include Hallucination (apperception), delusion (false belief) of grandeur, persecution and reference and bizarre behaviors as well The third historical approach will be outlining is “The Psychological Traditions”, which is abnormal behavior s attributed to faulty psychological development and to social context. Psychoanalysis Psychoanalysis was pioneered by Sigmund Freud (1856-1939).

He learned the art Of Hypnosis from France. He experimented with somewhat different procedures of Hypnosis. He used Hypnosis in a innovative way. He encouraged his patients to talk freely about their problems, conflicts and fears -He discovered the unconscious mind and its influence in psychopathology by using the techniques of Free Association, Dream Analysis and Freudian Slips. Structure of the mind: According to Freud the mind insists of old, ego and super ego which operates on pleasure principle, it is childish and immature.

Libido provides energy to old, Ego and Superego. Ego operates on Reality Principle and it is the master control . At works on logic and reason The Superego it operates on the moral principle and it is the conscience of the Psyche. The Ego mediates and resolves conflict between old and Superego. 4) Distinguish between the one-dimensional and multidimensional models of psychopathology. A one-dimensional model basically assumes that psychopathology is the result of a single causal factor, e. G.

Schizophrenia is caused by a chemical imbalance or by growing up surrounded by overwhelming conflicts among family members. The multidimensional integrative approach holds that psychological disorders are always the products of multiple interacting causal facts. Most scientist and clinicians believe abnormal behavior results from numerous influences. There are specific mechanisms of multidimensional integrative approach to psychopathology. Biological Dimensions Include causal factors from the fields of genetics and neuroscience.

Genes are very long molecules Of DNA at various locations on chromosomes (23 pairs), thin the cell nucleus. Most of our behavior and personality is probably polyclinic (influenced by many genes). There are no individual genes for mental disorders and our psychological make-up is inheritable up to 50%. Psychological Dimensions Include causal factors from behavior and cognitive processes, including learned helplessness, social learning and even unconscious processes. Emotional Dimensions Include fear and anxiety. Monuments of emotions (physiological reactions, motor expression, action tendency, appraisal (CUB), subjective feeling) Social Dimensions Include family and friends people can learn a lot by observing what happens to someone else in a given situation (modeling or observational learning) 5) Define clinical assessment An evaluation of a patient’s physical condition and prognosis based on information gathered from physical and laboratory examinations and the patient’s medical history. ) Define the term diagnosis in psychopathology Diagnosis can be defined as the identification and labeling of a disease based on its signs and symptoms. Mental health clinicians (psychiatrists and psychologists) diagnose mental disorders using the criteria listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, also known as the ADSM, published by the American Psychiatric Association. 7) Differentiate the following terms as used in the study of abnormal behavior. ) Reliability The degree to which a measurement is consistent b) Validity Whether something measures what it is designed to measure c) Standardization Process by which a certain set of standards or norms is determined for a technique to make it use consistent methods across different measures. 8) In your own words describe the importance of using the ADSM-IV-TRY in diagnosing psychological disorders. Use of diagnostic criteria has been shown to increase diagnostic reliability (I. E. , likelihood that different users will assign the same diagnosis to an individual). ) Discuss the FOUR major causes of anxiety disorders will list four major causes but I will also discuss these points. Job stress or job change Work-related stress has many causes, including long hours, heavy workload, job insecurity, the threat of job loss or redundancy, and conflicts with other workers or bosses. Symptoms of work-related stress may include depression, anxiety, a drop in work performance, feelings of being overwhelmed, fatigue, teaches and an increase in sick days or absenteeism. Companies and employers should recognize work-related stress as a significant health and safety issue.

Death or loss off loved one Depending on the individual, these stages can last different lengths of time, can appear in a different order and some people may skip over one or more of the stages or some may repeat several of the stages over and over. According to Kibble-Ross, these same stages of grief can occur, not just after a death, but after any major loss, such as losing a job, ending a relationship, or facing poor health. Pregnancy and giving birth While commonly thought of as a “happy time,” pregnancy does not protect women from mood (depression or bipolar disorders) or anxiety disorders.

Women who have had neonatal losses often experience sadness and anxiety in a subsequent pregnancy. Some women enter pregnancy experiencing depression or anxiety, and we know that up to one out of every five pregnant women suffer during pregnancy. These rates are higher in teens and women of low socio-economic status. Women, who have had neonatal losses, may experience sadness and anxiety in a subsequent pregnancy. Major emotional hock following a stressful or traumatic event A sudden illness, an accident or an assault, or a natural disaster – these are all traumatic experiences which can upset and distress us.

They arouse powerful and disturbing feelings in us which usually settle in time, without any professional help. 10) Using clear illustrations, briefly describe the following disorders: a) Panic disorders People with panic disorder have sudden and repeated attacks of fear that last for several minutes. Sometimes symptoms may last longer. These are called panic attacks. Panic attacks are characterized by a fear of disaster or of losing intro even when there is no real danger. B) Agoraphobia Agoraphobia is just one type of phobia, or irrational fear.

People with phobias feel dread or panic when they face certain objects, situations, or activities. People with agoraphobia frequently also experience panic attacks, but panic attacks, or panic disorder, are not a requirement for a diagnosis of agoraphobia. C) Specific phobias A specific phobia, formerly called a simple phobia, is a lasting and unreasonable fear caused by the presence or thought of a specific object or situation that usually poses little or no actual danger. ) Social phobia Social phobia is a strong fear of being judged by others and of being embarrassed.

This fear can be so strong that it gets in the way of going to work or school or doing other everyday things. E) Generalized anxiety disorder Generalized Anxiety Disorder, or GAD, is an anxiety disorder that affects about 5% of the population. People with GAD worry excessively and uncontrollably about daily life events and activities, they often experience uncomfortable physical symptoms, including fatigue and sore muscles, and they can also have trouble sleeping and concentrating.