Abstract its position and its current strategy to


This paper analyses and review the
issues and the status of total quality management (TQM) by identifying the
quality’s contribution and its role in industry besides determine the
activities that can be carried out which could upgrade the quality in an
organization. Besides that, the paper also studies on current popularity and
effectiveness of total quality management in improving organization’s
performance through the understanding and perusal in various topics such as the
introduction into total quality management, total quality, customer focus,
continuous improvement, total quality techniques, factors in implementing total
quality management and quality standards and awards. Furthermore, this paper
also recommended ways that TQM can better be implemented by having all employee
from top management to lower management understands clearly and precisely about
TQM to have better impact to organization’s performance.


Keywords: review,
TQM, effectiveness, quality, improvement, organization, tools










Total Quality Management: A Literature Review


(1996) explains that one of total quality management approach is benchmarking
which means learn from others and imitate the best practice to open the door
for continuous improvement in every part of the organization. This approach is
done to challenge the internal organization management standard and compared
with the best organization so that any improvement can be highlighted thus inducing
an improvement to the existing standard. Other than that, TQM positioning
framework accommodate the management team of an organization to identify the
characteristics of its position and its current strategy to the management of
quality. It provides general guidance to help advance the process of
improvement. Besides, self-assessment is also used by organization to judges
itself against a model for continuous improvement such as the European Quality
Award (EFQM) and the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award. However, there
are still a lot of number of organizations which are not aware of these types
of self-assessment methods. These situations will give benefits to the more
aware organization as self-assessment approach can bring in terms of
identifying weaknesses and areas for improvement, but it can only be done after
having experience of operating TQM for about three years.

Therefore, a campaign
to encourage those less advanced organizations to take
the next tentative steps along the TQM journey should be done to whole levels
of the organization, starting with the board and senior management team. For
instance, top management should investigate or identify whether a significant
induction or job training have been done besides carry out some basic awareness
education and training in TQM for senior staff. An organization should also
have TQM department or committee and an infrastructure for quality improvement.
Furthermore, training about the seven-basic quality control tool such as
flowchart, Pareto diagram, cause and effect diagram, graph, and all the charts should
be given to person in charge and everyone in the organization for better
understanding and for quality improvement. The quality management system using
the criteria of the ISO 9000 series should be compulsory in any organization to
strengthen the quality management system. Besides, the use of statistical
process control (SPC) should be use in overall organization from downstream to
upstream activities. Pilot studies of techniques
is one of the activity that can be done to upgrade the quality in an
organization by having quality function development (QFD),
FMEA, design of experiments besides the seven QC tools that have been mention
before. Besides that, the factors which indicate that the culture has started
to change should be measured by an organization as it will help to change any
doubtful situation, then it must be communicated throughout the organization.

Other than that, effectiveness of TQM can only be done when the effectiveness
of teamwork is improved by ensuring that all non-manufacturing division
involves in the improvement process. Therefore, to have an advancement in the
improvement methods, new other tools, procedure and systems need to be
discovered. All new ideas and concepts must be considered before integrating
them into the improvement process, Dale, (1996).

Quality management consists of a set of
components: critical factors, tools, techniques and practices. The components
of total quality management (TQM) should be identified by the managers to
encourage successful quality management implementation. There are three
different sectors for successful quality management which are; contributions
from quality leaders, formal evaluation models and empirical research. Besides, Juran
(1986) pointed out the importance of both technical and managerial aspects, and
identi?ed the three basic functions of the quality management process:
planning, organization and control, as the stages for quality improvement. The
importance of training, the usage of cause-effect diagrams for problem solving,
and quality circles have been emphasized by Ishikawa to achieve continuous
improvement. There are fourteen strategies for quality improvement, including
top and intermediate management commitment, quality measurement, evaluation of
quality costs, corrective action, training, a zero-defect philosophy, objective
setting and employee recognition. some common issues can be observed, such as
management leadership, training, employees’ participation, process management,
planning and quality measures for continuous improvement. Hellsten and Klefsjo,
(2000) states that TQM is rather than a mere set of factors, a network of
interdependent components, a management system consisting of critical factors,
techniques and tools.

TQM is grouped into two aspects: the management
system which involves leadership, planning, human resources, and the technical
system (Evans and Lindsay, 1999); or into the “soft” and “hard” parts
(Wilkinson et al., 1998). A study by Tarí, (2005) explains that customer-related
issues and process management are the most important aspect chosen by workers
in an organization compared to human issues and continuous improvement
activities. Besides, the study shows that ISO 9000 certi?ed ?rms implement
human aspects to a lower extent than technical ones, thus, certi?ed ?rms should
obtain a higher employee involvement and engage in wider planning for any
improvements. TQM and human resource management go concurrently. TQM success depends
critically on human aspects (Powell, 1995) because it
focuses on facilitating
employee involvement and developing personnel policies are consistent with the
new culture. Once the management is aware of the TQM components, activities can
be developed for their implementation. Tarí, (2005)

The effectiveness and productivity of TQM can
be seen in companies that adopt TQM as they achieve greater effective productivity,
pro?tability and market share for most kinds of products and market situations. For instance, customer satisfaction transforms into customer delight when goods or
services exceed customers’ expectations. Thus, understanding what the customer
wants is vital. Since customer focus enhances effective productivity by
reducing internal and external failure costs it also ensures that only those
goods are produced that are in demand. Diversity in views and experiences
encourages creative ideas for “serving the customer” and this invariably promotes
productivity. Performance is enhanced through greater responsiveness, shorter
cycle times for new products or services, better products, shorter throughput
time and unique marketing, engineering or production strategies. Costs decline
by reducing errors, defects and wastage. The systematic management approach
ensures that whatever we produce is consistent with what we wanted to produce,
thereby reducing wastage. Empirical evidence from businesses that have won the
Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award also supports the belief that
implementing TQM improves productivity.

Without real commitment and teamwork from the
top management towards TQM viewpoint, the systems and tools cannot promise
signi?cant or sustainable results. Greater results show in all the performance
categories of ?nancial results, customer satisfaction, and employee
satisfaction once TQM is applicable. TQM also provides a long term sustainable
competitive advantage in an increasingly competitive global market, Khan,

Leading companies adopt TQM to reinforce their
organizational performance. A study by Teh et al., (2009)
con?rms that TQM practices could be operable conceptualized as one of the factors
which govern the occurrence of role con?ict as it is affordable and pragmatic
tool. Less occurrence of role conflict interconnected with effective
leadership, process management and information analysis. Conversely, managers
are challenged to identify ways to reduce the pressure of human resource focus
on role con?ict. Besides, the effect of TQM on the results concerning the
internal organizational environment seems to be slightly stronger than that on the
results of the external environment, Psomas, (2017).

Furthermore, the role of total quality
management (TQM) in industry involves enhancing customer satisfaction. TQM significantly
increases customer satisfaction across various industrial and cultural environment
since the scope of TQM spread out applicability across wide-ranging industrial
and cultural environment to attain higher customer focus, improve customer
satisfaction, and emphasize the need for more meta-analytic studies on the
subject. side of a business, speci?cally customer satisfaction and customer
focus. In a nutshell, successfully adopted quality management practices
positively influence customer gratification level. On top of that, organizational
attention on customers also increases resulting in enhanced business accomplishment.
In addition, the correlation between total quality management (TQM) and
knowledge management (KM) is included as one of the important matter in an organization.
The current study suggests that KM and TQM are positively associated with each
other, thus, it can be concluded that TQM and KM are synergistically related to
each other and that this interaction can have a positive effect on their
possible criterion variable, Jusoh, (2017).

In conclusion, TQM roles in industry and its
current status shows positive improvement as most of the studies shows that TQM
is very much applicable in most organizations and it is used as an approach to upgrade
the quality in an organization. Majority of studies states the increasing
number of effectiveness of TQM in an organization by having the seven QC tools
besides many other methods use in TQM.



Barrie G. Dale, (1996)
“Benchmarking on total quality management adoption: a positioning
model”, Benchmarking for Quality Management & Technology, Vol. 3
Issue: 1, pp.28-37

Juan José Tarí, (2005)
“Components of successful total quality management”, The TQM
Magazine, Vol. 17 Issue: 2, pp.182-194

H. Khan, (2003) “Impact of total quality management on productivity”,
The TQM Magazine, Vol. 15 Issue: 6, pp.374-380


Jiménez-Jiménez, Micaela Martinez-Costa, Angel R. Martínez-Lorente, Hammady
Ahmed Dine Rabeh, (2015) “Total quality management performance in
multinational companies: A learning perspective”, The TQM Journal, Vol. 27
Issue: 3, pp.328-340


Pei?Lee Teh, Chen?Chen Yong, Veeri Arumugam, Keng?Boon Ooi,
(2009) “Does total quality management reduce employees’ role
conflict?”, Industrial Management & Data Systems, Vol. 109 Issue: 8,


Evangelos Psomas, Fotis Vouzas, Nancy Bouranta,
Mary Tasiou, (2017) “Effects of total quality management in local
authorities”, International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, Vol.
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Satish Mehra, Sampath Ranganathan, (2008)
“Implementing total quality management with a focus on enhancing customer
satisfaction”, International Journal of Quality & Reliability
Management, Vol. 25 Issue: 9, pp.913-927


Amir Honarpour, Ahmad Jusoh, Choi Sang Long,
(2017) “Knowledge management and total quality management: a reciprocal
relationship”, International Journal of Quality & Reliability
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