Ethics, religion, philosophy, knowledge, geography, story, politics and the range of human life in different groups of people were the main focus areas of educating both adults and children. Education was not only passed down orally but also by means of rock paintings and engravings. Solicitation in the pre-colonial time was highly influenced by the family of the individual, which in turn depicted how the child would behave, think and feel. Solicitation was passed on to generations formally, which was directly teaching an individual and informally, which was indirectly learned by means of observation and the solicitation process.
Education for indigenous people had many aspects to it, these included language, initiation, art, practical skills and music and dance. Language is a crucial source to be accepted into a culture as well as to have knowledge and to understand a culture. Children of different communities learned their languages and what was morally accepted through folk story telling sessions. These sessions were not only of educational value but also entertaining to the children of that community. The story telling sessions were done in the language spoken by that community.
The history of the community which included the legislations between the ancestors and gods were described by the people using tales, proverbs and songs. Using proverbs was a method of transferring language to the younger members of that community. Initiation as a ritual carries symbolic meaning that relates to the social structure and belief system of a particular cultural group (Boys et al. 201 1). This ritual was performed when a child enters adulthood and to teach the youth of the community essence of self.
This may be explained by the rite of passage, which is divided into three sequenced categories. F-rosily, Separation rites, which is the amoeba of individuals from society and abandoning their previous social status. Secondly, marginal rite is discovering a new social status in complete isolation without the influence of any external factors. Lastly, aggregation rite is the returning of an individual back to society with this new social status. Circumcision and hardships Were experienced during isolation amongst boys and girls be;en the ages often and sixteen.
In the pre-colonial time social, economic and academic situations of the community was entrenched in the rock art. These paintings projected their communities and religious beliefs. The San thought they were close to the animal territory and reflected this relationship in their art. The material used to paint this rock art varied from, red oxides, carbon, and manganese dioxide to eland blood. This art was not only in the form of rock art, but also trance dances and other activities that took place. Men and women, in communities, had roles that differed.
The Koki were interested in livestock, as it was seen as a measure of wealth. The men therefore protected the livestock from being taken or attacked. It was also their responsibility to make clay pots and poison arrows. Koki women soused their responsibilities on housework and the running various household duties, which included skinning and handing out of the hunted meat as well as weeding and basket making. They also collected various plants for eating purposes. The elderly men in the community were responsible for teaching the adolescent boys how to hunt eland.
Once this has been done they are considered adults. Cultural beliefs and values in a community were portrayed through dance to express feelings and pass the various beliefs on to further generations. Important events such as marriages, funerals, etc. Made use of music and dance. This music was seen in two different parts. One, being vocal music, and the other being instrumental. In different rituals, music was used as an agent to enable individuals to enter a trance state. This state was acquired through observation and imitation.
Instrumental music was used for entertainment; the instrument used was a hunting bow. Rhythm was the common factor of all indigenous music, this connected the members of a community in both a learning and social way. Education has changed over time. In order to understand these changes we need to look at the past methods of ‘teaching” whether it is formal or informal. All teaching is of value no matter what the form is. Reflection In the past teachers used to be the major source of knowledge, the leader and educator of their students’ school life.
Teachers would organism after- school activities. They used to be the authority in the class and often took over the role of parents. Nowadays, teachers provide information and show their students how to tackle them. Although they are still considered to be a kind of leader in the class, they can be thought of as facilitators in the learning process. They are supporters rather than educators and also advisors awards parents. Teachers in modern classrooms are no longer lecturers, they are facilitators, their main task is to set goals and organism the learning process accordingly.
In the past, teachers used to follow a syllabus which was compulsory for them. I believe that in the past teachers taught many lessons to the students they taught such as discipline, morals, respect, etc. Nowadays teachers are not able to teach such lessons as effectively as a lot of the authority they had has been taken away. Looking the history of these teachers, their teaching approaches and lessons they taught as made me hind about teaching completely different.