According to Beauchampet. al (2001), there are 4 main ethicalprinciple of study that guided researchers to use these principle in conductingtheir research and the data that are gathered. These are:· Respect for autonomy.
· Non-maleficence.· Beneficence.· Justice. Respect for autonomy can be defined as requirement to ensure thatresearch participants are entirely free to make a choice about theirparticipation in a research study (Beauchamp et. al, 2001). It means that theparticipant must be given an adequate information about the conducted researchand what participation are involves. They also must be free from any influenceor coercion. Duncan (2015) stated that the principle of non-maleficence must beapplied to any researchers which they have an obligation not to inflict anyharm on their study participant.
For example, asking a question that can causedistress or discomfort to the participant. Therefore, these particular careshould be stressed to ensure that these research are properly conducted. In thebeneficence ethical principle, it has two elements which is positivebeneficence and utility beneficence. This is according to Yoshino (2008) whichhe stated that positive beneficence are doing positive good in the sense thatresearch has some value of scientifically and educationally, for example,address an necessary and important question. Meanwhile, he also stated thatutility beneficence are refers to the researcher’s requirement in ‘balances anddrawback’ to produce or generate the best overall results, for example, make anassessment whether the benefits of the research are justify the level ofeffort, costs, and risk of harm to the participants. Lastly, the ethicalprinciple of justice can refers as anequal and fair distribution of resources, analysis based and the burdens of thedecisions (Rich, 2008).
It means that treating people equally and fairly toensure that they are accorded their full rights. For example, many participantsare willing to participate in research, and to take on the considerable burdenoften associated with clinical research, in the same time they are not exposedto economic harm by engaging in the research. Therefore, all these ethicalprinciple that are outlined are well acknowledged and respected by most of theresearcher. Thus,researchers should pay attention to this issue so that participants can bebetter informed and have greater exposure about the informed consentdocuments that they are required to sign. Furthermore, researchers should takeall the steps necessary to ensure that participants fully understand what isbeing stated in the consent form.