Since then different models of play therapies have been developed. The focus of this report will be on description of Deadlier therapy. It will investigate the client group of this model. Describes the critical evaluation of advantages and disadvantages of the model. In conclusion, even though this is a unique model because it has taken different approach there is lack of research and literature on the model. Description of the model: Deadlier psychology was introduced at Freudian school known as school of individual psychologist by a psychotherapist named Alfred Adler.
The individual psychologist’s aim is to understand individual style of life as a part of whole (Adler, 1964). Adler believed the child’s play reflect his or her characteristic manner of behaving or style of life (Carmichael, 2006). Therefore, the basis of this therapy is play combined with individual psychology. The key therapist associated to the model of play therapy is Terry Eastman year 1993. (Carmichael, 2006). It is an active and directive approach working with children (Eastman, 2001 She has developed this approach into a unique play therapy model.
It has four phases, phase one the egalitarian allegations; phase ;o investigating the child’s life; phase three helping the child gain insight into his or her lifestyle; phase four providing reorientation and reeducation for the child when necessary. These phases are one after each other in a sequence. Children who are successful seem to have four beliefs that serve as unconscious behavioral guide (Eastman, 2001 ). Children who are also usually referred to Deadlier play therapy are children who have negative view of them, which causes misbehaver.
The characteristic of these children are, they are not successful, confidant, socially connected, they have low self-esteem ND self-belief in themselves. The therapist aim is on the child in order to reinforce the four beliefs known as the crucial Co’s. Effectively, even though the therapist concentrates on the child it is the crucial Co’s that influences the therapy. The crucial CSS are connect, capable, counts, and courage. Children who do not have a sense of belonging are not able to have a strong connection with others. In phase one the therapist establishes a relationship.
In phase 0,’10 the therapist strengthen the relationship. In phase three is talking about the value of the relationship. In phase four is teaching the child social skills so the child can form a good relationship in the future. It will allow the child to feel connect to the world. The therapist helps children to overcome their negative self-understanding. Children who do not believe in self they are not confidant that they are capable of doing things. Hence encouragement in the four phases is important component. Encouragement allows the child to build their self-esteem and confident to feel they are capable of doing things.
When the therapist encourages the child s/he is able to over come their self-doubt the child will believe in their own competence. Children need to be valued so they would know they are significant. When a child does not feel significant they feel they do not count and people are not listening to them. In phase two the therapist explores the child’s life also it will explore the child’s situation and relationship when the child felt significant and counted. This will encourage the child to explore its own life style and get an insight of it.
Fifth child does not feel significant the therapist spits in their soup. In phase four the therapist encourages the child to make positive contribution towards the child. Children have to feel courage (Eastman, 2001). If children do not feel courageous they will not know if they are successful with a task or not. They will also feel hopeless and pointless. They do not try new experiences in their lives. However, the therapist in phase four tries to break the activities in small tasks in order for the child to come over their fear of failure.
The therapist also creates situations for the child to gain and master specific skills. Eastman has identified four main significant features in formation of each individual’s personality. These tenets are that people are socially embedded; goal directed; being creative; and view reality as subjectivity. People being socially embedded means that people are in need to belong therefore they will make connection with others. Children view themselves by others peoples reactions so they could fit in different groups. Which connection is one of the crucial CSS.
However goal directed people move towards their goals in life hence Deadlines believe that people are goal directed. The therapist looks for children’s goal of their behavior. Thus children have their own unique interpretation of specific situation and interaction. Hence the therapist should take all of the child’s subjective interpretation into consideration. Most of the mime these interpretation are negative therefore the therapist changes the negative into positive subjective. The Deadlier therapists believe that each human being will interpret their view Of life in a creative way and make choices to practice their creativity.
Hence why humans are creative beings the Deadlier play therapist believes in the child to make his/her own creative decisions by changing lifestyle, increasing social interest and making shifts to positive goals (Eastman, 2001. Client groups: There has not been any clarification of the age group. Though, Eastman (Bethlehem, 1 987 & Pigged, 1962) has stated that “because most children ender age of 1 D do not have the abstract reasoning and language skills to verbally process their thoughts, feelings, reaction and attitudes many professionals who work therapeutically with children use toys, arts, and play as a vehicle for communicating. On the contrary, as the basis of this approach is play therapy the age of client group is between 3-13 years (Eastman, 2001 Whilst, there has not been any specification on what type of client groups do benefit from this approach. Eastman (2001 ) has mentioned clinical application. When a child does not have any true social feelings, they will come criminals, problem children and suicidal and neurotics (Adler, 1964). Hence Eastman (2001 ) suggested that Deadlier therapy is useful for children who have acting-out behavior and cannot relate with others.
Deadlier therapy is also useful for children who are anxious or perfectionist and gifted children respond well (Eastman, 2001 ). Critically evaluating Even though there is not enough acknowledgment on Deadlier play therapy there are issues to be raised. Children’s behaviors, attitude, feelings are constantly changing in the play therapy sessions “Life is a constant process of arsenal dynamic experiences, and children are constantly experiencing an internal reorganization of thoughts, feelings and attitude” (Landlers, 2012). Deadlier play therapists develop a treatment plan based on the hypothesis of the child’s life style.
If the hypothesis were wrong the whole process of therapy would be wrong. Whilst the changes happening within the child internally and externally. This will question the therapy process as it being structured. Hence why the process of Deadlier play therapy should be flexible to the changes of the child. However, because of it been directive the hangers within the child may or may not happen. Thus, form phenomenological view of the world (Eastman, 2001) the therapist takes all of the subjective interpretation of the client into consideration.
Views the client as self in the process and the dynamic as assessment (Carlson & Spray, 2006) and has a holistic image of the situation. The focus of the holistic image of the situation is on different areas Of the person. The therapist does not focus on only one perspective but they consider multiple dimensions. Even though this might be challenging for the therapist, the therapist utilizes variety of techniques (Carlson & pray, 2006). This will allow the client to change the negative views of them selves into positive aspect by changing the ways of thinking.
From this perspective family is a critical component (Eastman, 2001). Even though in the therapy process each phase has different goals family will change their view on the child’s behavior positively. It will also allow the parent to have a good parenting style. In few articles that were published by different authors there was no specification of what age is it appropriate for. Play therapy is usually suitable for age of 3-13 years depending on their developmental age not chronological GE. Presumably, this approach will be suitable for these age groups.
There is also no explanation on if the parents are clinically suitable for this process or if they are dedicated enough. Whilst as it is a family therapy approach and based individual personality there is no doubt that all parents should be involved. In contrast, there are still existing areas for continued development of research on clinical application of client groups parents and children. Conclusion: We are unique in our own ways and have our own unique thoughts, feelings and understanding the view of our surroundings. The therapy is based on Idler’s individual psychology and play.