Briefly explain the role each of the four basic elements of effective communication play in the overall communication process.
1.The sender must encode and transmit the message in a discernible form to the receiver and respond to feedback.2.The message is he thoughts, feelings or ideas that have been packaged and sent from the sender to the receiver.
3.The receiver is the intended recipient of the message.4.Feedback is acknowledgment of successful or unsuccessful receipt of the message and is communicated from the receiver to the sender.
As a sender, how can you be certain that your communication has been effective?
Look at teh feedback form the receiver indicating that the intended message was received and accurately interpreted by the receiver. This feedback may also be in the form of the receiver taking desired actions.
Briefly describe the 3 directions of formal flow of communication in a typical organization.
1.Downward communication normally originates at upper levels of management and flows down to the lower levels of the organization.
2.Upward communication is the flow of communication up through the chain of command from lower positions in the organization to higher.3.
With lateral communication, information flows neither down nor upward; it flows between managers and peers or between coworkers. Many times occurs between workers of different units.
Briefly describe the two main types of informal communication found in a typical organizaiton.
1.Networks are formed between individuals of different sections and units who regularly interact to accomplish the mission. Networks link individuals into a "communication web" where they share and exchange strengths to overcome obstacles and resolve otherwise irresolvable problems.2.
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Also known as the "romor mill," the grapevine is the most unmonitored form of verbal communication within the organization and it acts without conscious effort or thought; it will carry any information at any time to anywhere in the organization.
How can networking enhance organizational effectiveness?
By helping individuals identify themselves with the work and serve as a catalyst to building healthy, work-related socializing units.
Waht are the four major categories of communication barriers?
What causes language barriers?
An inability to use the right word or to communicate with a receiver.
Which communication barrier do supervisors create when they donot consider their subordinates’ inputs? What could be the results of this barrier?
It could result in the subordinates not participating in or providing input for the office discussions.
What actions can you as a supervisor, take to reduce the chances of communication barriers affecting your work area?
Improve witten and oral communication skills and change teh conditions that cause communication barriers.
What actions can a supervisor take to overcome communication barriers?
Establish a communications policy, build a supportive relationship, and build an atmosphere of mutual trust and confidence.
Describe the type of exertion that is required of an effective listener.
The listener must be actively involved in the listening process.
This means the liestener must expend energy in order to receive the information, pay attention to the ender, understand the meaning of the message, remember the information for later recall, and respond to the verbal and nonverbal cues of the sender.
What is the definition of effective listening?
Listening is the process of receiving, attending, understanding, remembering, and responding to auditory stimuli.
What is the definition of hearing?
Hearing is a biological activity that involves perceiving audible signals with our ears.
How can higher intelligence actually be detrimental to effective listening?
There is often an association made between reading and listening because many of the same cognitive skills are required for both activities. However, people with no or poor reading skills often compesate for their shortfall by intensifying other senses-like listening.
Why do many people think that good reading skills are required to be an effective listener?
People with higher intellect may perceive teh know more about the subject that the sender does and lose interest in the communication.
What are the 3 critical attribute of effectieve listening?
Receiving, attending and understanding.
What is receiving?
Accepting information in the form of verbal or nonverbal message.
How do your perceptions affect teh listening process?
Perceptions act as a filter for every message.
They’re based on experience, values, background and attitude, and they influence reception and understanding of the messege.
What is attending?
Paying attentio to the message, focusing on the specific information, and deciding what action is necessary.
What can you do to eliminate external distractions?
Select the message that you are going to pay attention to and focus on that information.
What is the understanding element in the listening process?
When there’s a shared meaning of the message between the sender and receiver.
What are the two common barriers to understanding?
Word usage/meaning and inconsistency between verbal and nonverbal messages.
What actions should you take in preparing to listen?
Accept responsibility for understanding the message and make a n active decision to listen to the message. Be mentally and physically alert an davoid distractions and biases.
What does it mean to listen actively?
Don’t just absorb the message; participate in the conmmunication. Listen from the speaker’s viewpoint. Pay attention to your posture.
Ask questions, make eye contact, and smile.
What are some steps you can take to break the boredom barrier?
Try to understand the speaker’s point of view. Mentally review the points the speaker has made and write an outline or summarize what he/she has said. Listen and take notes. Ask questions for clarificatin and contribute your own information or relate your experiences to the subject.
What are the 3 most common general puposes in effective communication?
Inform, direct, and persuade.
How does the general purpose differ fromthe specific objective of your communication?
The general purpose is what you, as a sender, want to do with the communication; the specific objective is what you want the audience to do as a result of the communication.
Explain each of the two audiences involved in effective communication.
1. The sending audience is the group or individual represented during the communication.
2. The receiving audience is te group your message is intended for.
How can support enhance your communication?
Using support will increase the understanding by using examples, comparisons, explanations, testimony, and statistics.
Explain how citing your references affects your credibility.
The audience will know the information is correct if they’re aware of the source, and it eliminates questions about your credibility.
Name the main sources you can use for researching your material.
Self, subject matter experts, libraries, and the internet.
What are 3 critical elements in conducting research?
Establish a research plan, manage your time, and documentation
citing the reference the information comes from.
Assimilating the support and source of that support derectly into the text of the message.
Providing credibility to the source being cited.
List and describe the elements of organizing communication.
1. Introduction-the beginning of the communication,prepares the audience for the information with overview and attention steps.
2.Body- the meat of the communication3.Conclusion-brings the communication to an end; summarizes the information and motivates the audience to retain the information4.Transitions-transitions signal that you’re finished with one point and are progressing on to a new point;
What type of pattern would be most appropriate for describing an event or series of steps in a process?
Time or chronological pattern.
Give an example of a topic and related main points that would be appropriate for the cause and effect organizational pattern.
Identify a condition as the cause of a situation and relate it to the resulting conditions or actions as the effect.
List and describe the four types of outlines.
1.Scratch outline-basic outline listing key ideas only, usually in sequence of planned presentation.2.Informal-expanded version of a scratch outline including key points and specific support material, giving more detail, uses words,phrases, or short sentences.3.Formal-list of main points and sub-points with support material4.
Talking paper-simila to formal using key words, usually limited to 1 page
What are the four steps in the process of writting?
What five steps are involved in the prewriting phase?
Selecting your purpose and objective
Analyzing your audience
Researching your subject
Selecting a pattern
When writing your draft, focus your concerns on what five parts?
Describe the revising phase.
Revising is a finishing step to immprove the communication based on the editing phase and the feedback from the reviewers. You revise or rewrite your draft to make it into a more formal presentation.
What is sentence unity?
All the parts of the sentence matching in number, verb, possessions, etc.
Briefly define the four types of sentences you should use throughout your written communication.
1.Simple sentence- a sentence that expresse one comple thought.2.Compound sentence-a unioun of 2 or more simple sentences3.Complex sentence-a simple sentence with a dependent clause attached to it.4.Compound-complex sentence– a combination of a compound and a complex sentence.
Name the standard sentence mechnics you should be aware of when writing.
Punctuation, capitalization, and abbreviation.
Briefly describe each of the common obstacles to sentence coherence.
1.Faulty order of sentence parts and misplaced modifiers-sentence parts are not in the correct order.
2.Faulty parallelisms-similar ideas or parts are not expressed in a paralel way.3.Faulty relationship of ideas-reader can’t tell the relationship of sentence parts due to dangling modifiers or missions.
What are the 3 basic componets of a paragraph?
Topic sentence, support sentence, and closing sentence.
What is the basic concept of paragraph coherence?
All of the paragraph parts should be arranged so that their relationship is clear tothe reader.
What are some examples of a transitional device you can use to show a contrasting relationship?
But, still, however, nevertheless, and yet
Considering the point of view for your communication, describe how writing in the second person is done?
The second person is the person spoken to.
Describe the 3 common forms of tense you will use in your communication.
Past-express actions or make a statement about something that happened in the past.
Prestent-expresses actionor makes a statement about something happening in the present time.
Future-expresses action or makes a statement about something happening at a future time.
What does the voice of your writing indicate?
Voice shows if the subject acts or is acted upon.
How do you use number to maintain paragraph coherence?
If the controlling idea is singular, you keep all the references to it singular.
What is the basic idea behind writing a draft?
The primary objective is to get your ideas down on paper in some from so you can edit and revise.
Each time your work is edited, what should the editor be reading for?
Read for content, arrangement and flow, and readability and mechanics.
What is the definition of a bullet statement given in Webster’s Dictionary?
Bullet-an object resembling a bullet inshape, action, of effect; statement-something stated or declared.
What is the working definition of a bullet statement form The Tongue and Quill?
A clear, concise, bottom line of an idea or single accomplishment and its impact.
Waht is usually included in a bullet statement written for an Enlisted Performance Report?
A description of how the person performed his/her duties and accomplishments that exceeded standards with the mission impact of those accomplishments.
How are bullet statements used in award nominations?
It should clearly express the person’s actins and resulting impact ont he mission. They are used to describe outstanding tasks the member has accomplished in the narrative and combined in a formal format for the citation.
How could failing to provide descriptive bullet statements in EPR’s adversely affect teh formal recognition and motivation of subordinates?
Since EPRs normally accompany the submission to justify the decoration, if bullet statements are weakly written the decorationmay be downgraded or disapproved. If workers are not recognized for their contributions, their motivation will naturally drop.
Describe the use of bullet statements in talking papers.
Bullet statements are usually limited to one short statement, the paper is not to exceed on full page and the statements should have enough detail to jog your memory or give the reader the idea of the paper.
Describe the attribute of being accurate for writing bullet statements.
A statement based on fact and statistics.
Describe the attribute of being brief for writing bullet statements.
Describe the attribute of being concise for writing bullet statements.
Only what has to be there for the reader to understand the statement.
Describe the attribute of being specific for writing bullet statements.
Clear and to the point
What are the attribute of a single idea bullet statement?
The ACBS and one main idea or thought
What type of writing are single idea bullet statements used for?
What attributes are included in single accomplishment bullet statements?
a bullet statement with the ABCS, a single accomplishment, and the impact of that accomplishment.
List the 3 types of single accomplishment bullet statements.
Action verb bullets
Modified verb bullets
Specific achievement bullets
What are the four rules for constructing bullet statements?
Use phrases and clauses
Use sentences without subjects
Helping vervs, adjectives, and tansitions not needed
begin accomplishment or impact bullets with strong verb and end with mission impact.
What are the four guidelines for writing single idea bullet statements?
Prepare short statements, abbreviate wording
Use open punctuation
Keep to one page if possible
Waht are the four guidelines for writing single accomplishment bullet statements?
Follow same basic guidelines for bullet statements (ABCS)
Include action verb element, and an impact element.
Can be complete sentences.
Relate accomplishment to mission
What is the purpose of the quarterly and annual recognition programs?
To enhance the morale and esprit de corps of the NCOs and airmen through competition.
What areas are usually considered during competition for the Airman of the Quater or Year?
Duty performance, appearance, military knowledge, customs and courtesies, AF programs, communicative skills, and knowledge of current events.
What form is used to submit an airman for the Airman of the Quarter award?
AF Form 1206
How many times can a person be nominated for a quartely or annua award?
As long as the person meets the criteria for the competition, he or she can be submitted repeatedly for the award. Quartely award winners are ussually automatically considered to be submitted for the annual competition.
What is the Below-the-Zone program designed to do?
To promote deserving A1Cs to the rank of SrA as early as 6 months prior to their scheduled promotion eligibility date.
What AFI governs the BTZ program?
AFI 36-2502, Airman Promotion Program.
What are teh six things to remember when you meet a board for an award or promotion?
Study any applicable material or instructions.
Prepare for introduction
Know your chain of command
Check your uniform and have someone else check it.
Get a haircut if necessary
Waht is the difference between an award and a decoration?
An award is presented to a person upon reaching a specific milestone or upon completing a requirement within their career.A decoration usually requires a nomination package or some additional justification, and is most often awarded for specific achievement or period of service.
Waht AFI governs awards and decorations?
AFI 36-2803 The Air Force Awards and decorations program.
What two forms may be used to recommend someone for an AFAM?
AF Form 642,AF Achievemen medal and AF Commendation Medal JustificationAF Form 2274, Air Force Achievement Medal Certificate.
What purpose does the DECOR-6 serve?
It initiates the decoration nomination process and creates a suspense for completion and return of the package.
How is the AFCM citation prepared?
The AFCM citation is printed on plain bond paper in portrait format and according to the additional formatting requirements of AFI 36.2803
If a decoration is based on false statements and has not been awarded yet, what should be done?
If the decoration package is stillin the approval process, a letter should be submitted to follow the package to the approval authority. The letter should state specifically the false information and the reason why the package should be dis approved. Only the approval authority can disapprove a nomination package once it has been submitted.
List the steps in the general process of speaking.
Prewriting, drafting, editing, revising, and presentation
How does practicing the presentation benefit the speaker?
It helps by bringing to light problem areas tht are not evident by reading alone, it will bring new ideas and possibilities to the speaker’s attention, and it gets the speaker ready to actually deliver the presentation.
Briefly explain the difference between the impromptu and extemporaneous methods of presentation.
Impromptu-requires the speaker to talk about a subject on the spur of the moment with little or no preparation.Extemporaneous-requires an extensive amount of preparation and practice.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of the manuscript method of presentation?
Advantages-there is often plenty of time to prepare the text, edit it, and rehearse it in anticipation of delivery.Disadvantages- there is a danger of being too tied to the text during the reading of the script, resulting in eye contact with the audience and a lack of spontaneity.
List the physical behaviors that affect your presentation.
Eye contact, body movement, and gestures
Why are physical behaviors important to effective presentations?
The majority of our communication is accomplished nonverbally through eye contact, body movement and gestures.
How can you use your voice to make your presentation more effective?
By using good quality, intelligibility, and variety to indicate teh importance or emotion associated with your statements.
Why are enthusiasm and sincerity essential to your speaking presentation?
Because the audience will pick up on your enthusiasm and remain interested.
What is the best way to overcome nervousness?
Why should a speaker pay attention to his/her word usage?
Because word usage will impact the audience’s undestanding of the material and their attitude towards you and the material. The wordss you choose will also asay something about yourself and the sending audience.
How does time affect your presentation?
Because you’re alloted a certain amount of time for your presentation, don’t waste time preparing something you won’t have time to present.
What questions should you ask yourself when using visual aids?
Will it enhance the presentation? When will you introduce it? Whe willyou remove it? What equipment will be needed to use it? Practice with it.
Why is humor expected by some audiences and not by others?
Most public speaking situations do not require humor to accomplish the pupose. But some speaking situations may necessitate attention grabbers or involve a limited amountof entertainment.
What are some factors that influence the amount of time allotted for presentations?
How much time has been dictated by theevent programmer, what the topic is, how much time has been given to research the subject, and the time of day the of speech.
Briefly explain a public speaking situation where reading a manuscrpt would be the preferred method of presentation.
A formal presentation at an awards banquet, PME graduation, etc, where the exact words are extremely important.
Compare differences in audience size and configuration between a shop safey briefing and a commander’s call.
Shop safety briefing-group size would be small and configuration may range from informal standing to solid square or U-shapedCommander’s call-group size would be lage and configuration would probably be in an auditorium or amphitheatre.
How would you use visual aids differently in a small informal grup setting than in a larger more formal group?
In a small informal group visual aids can be produced on a smaller scale, the viw screen size can be smaller, and objects may be passed around during the presentation. For larger groups, handouts should be given to audience members as they enter the room and ensure the view screen size is large enough for members in the back to see clearly.
After sharing your idea about improving the duty schedule in a shop meeting, your supervisor has asked you to present your recommendation to the section chiefs at next week’s staff meeting.List the public speaking variables you should consider changing.
Audience size and configuration
Atmosphere and tone will be more formal
Presentation method will need to be extemporaneous.
Briefly explain the difference between the effective use of interpersonal communication skills and promoting social relationships.
Interpersonal communication skills-gaining a shared meaning form one on one converasitons by constanly switching back and forth between roles as sender and receiver and conbining good listening, observing, and attendign skills with good speaking skills.Promoting social relationships-supporting the needs of the individual while not necessarily considering the mission requirements of the organization.
How will practicing effective interpersonal communicationskills promote a cooperative work center climate?
It will encourage workers to share ideas on how to improve mission effectiveness.
Encouraging feeback from subordinates establishes a supportive climate and helps the leaders make decisions with workers concerns in mind.
Briefly explain how practicing effective interpersonal communication skills will promote mission accomplishment.
By creating a situational climate where conflict gets resolved, mision taskings are most effectively accomplished and worker needs are met as the mission is accomplished.