Although I will be going into more detail later on, the four nonroutine cognitive skills are abstract reasoning, collaboration, systems thinking and experimentation. These skills will give any person the ability to work in the Managing Information Systems field. Stated by Robert Reich, abstract reasoning is “having the ability to make and manipulate models”. This means as an employee the person is able to understand, analyze, and improve conceptual models. By being able to analyze information and have the skill set to detect relationships in a pattern and then solving the most difficult problems by understanding the underlying meaning. This skill is essential in any business situation, Managing Information Systems rely on on this skill when building models of information systems, as well as when transacting business activities. I believe abstract reasoning to be one of the most important cognitive skills in the business world for the fact that it gives employees the thought process needed to formulate theories and new business ideas. Being able to think out of the box is imperative when everything is business is always changing. Robert Reiche’s second cognitive skill is Systems thinking, the “ability to model system, components, connect inputs and outputs among components to reflect structure and dynamics of system observed”. In other words it is the capability to understand a system by its components. Through the components one is able to identify the interactions and linkages that could compromise the entire system. In a business perspective, systems thinking is necessary to make any system function, i.e the company itself. By having an understanding of each employee, what they do, how they work, what they are better at, a company will always be in motion. Having each department use team work for any complex interconnected problem, systems thinking will always help to solve it. Collaboration is the “activity of two or more people working together to achieve a common goal, result, or work product.” Collaboration is not entirely focused on employees having the ability to work together but also be able to give and receive an honest opinion or critical feedback to get the wanted result. Collaboration itself is imperative in any business project whether it be creating a new product or fixing an IT problem together, collaborating is being able to be open minded and get better results by working together to get the best solution. I believe systems thinking and collaboration go hand in hand. Finally, the ability to experiment, “making a reasoned analysis of an opportunity, envisioning potential solutions, evaluating those possibilities, and developing the most promising ones, consistent with the resources you have.” Meaning you must not be afraid to try new things when speaking about business ventures, solutions, reasoned analysis or new softwares the company might obtain. If a company was having a problem with not being able to get people to go on their website, by using the ability to experiment without fear one could find incentives or advertisement placements with the resources the company already have to make the website more enticing. Even easier steps such as changing the way the website looks or how fast it runs.