An A-Z of ELT

accent addition (vs. accent reduction)
In response to the English as an International Language movement, this approach exists in contrast to accent reduction. The idea is to add features which increase mutual intelligibility, without worrying about accent. Accent is considered to be a normal phenomenon and part of one’s identity.
acculturation (relevance to SLA)
The process of integrating into a new culture. It is theorized that a greater degree of acculturation correlates with greater success in language learning.

The degree to which a language learner’s use of the L2 reflects the rules of the language. (Generally this is taken to mean grammatical accuracy, although it may be applied to vocabulary and pronunciation.)
accuracy first or fluency first?
It was once assumed that accuracy was a prerequisite to fluency. More recent trends, however, suggest that this is not so clear cut.

Learners often focus on accuracy at a later stage of language learning.

action research
Teacher driven research aimed at both improving teaching practice and empowering teachers. Cycles of action and reflection.On encountering a problem…planning –> acting –> observing –> reflecting
Activity-based learning
Learning focused on projects, games, crafts, etc. Better for young learners!
adjacency pair
Two utterances which commonly go together in natural speech.

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Conversational turn taking.

prefix or suffix
adjectives: attributive vs. predicative
an attributive adjective goes before a noun and describes it, whereas a predicative adjective follows a linking verb.
adjectives: gradable vs non-gradable
“very tall” (gradable) but never “very perfect” (non-gradable)
adjectives and lexical sets
adjectives are often presented in categories, such as to describe people or places.
an optional / structurally dispensable part of a sentence whose removal will not affect the rest of the sentence.
Adolescents (strengths and weaknesses)
Strengths in grammar; perform better than adults and learn faster than YLDifficulties achieving native pron.

; negative affective factors (affect and identity)

Sense of control– It can be said that learners have agency if they are in control of their learning process. (see: learner-centered instruction”)
anything which can be said to assist in teaching– visuals, realia, charts, computers, etc.
anaphoric reference
a word in a text that refers back to something previously mentioned.”I went out with Jo yesterday. She looked awful.”
the way we use language to show how we feel about what is being said or written.This can be expressed lexically, grammatically, or through paralinguistic devices such as intonation.
The use of language such that it is suitable to a given context.

This is a sociolinguistic competence.

making your own of something– this is rooted in sociocultural learning theory and holds that we create ownership of a skill by doing it with someone who is more skilled until we are able to control the skill ourselves.
aptitude (3 distinct abilities)
auditory ability: the ability to discern and analyze foreign soundslinguistic ability: the ability to discern patterns and infer rules from themmemory ability
those parts of the mouth, throat, and nose which are used in creating speech: the tongue, alveolar ridge, lips, teeth, etc.
those parts of the mouth, throat, and nose which are used in creating speech: the tongue, alveolar ridge, lips, teeth, etc.
audiolingual method
Widespread in the 50’s-60’sFeatures the drilling of sentence patterns.Views language teaching as a science rather than art.

Doesn’t allow for errors.As a positive, generated lots of controlled practice activities.

Refers to material which was not originally developed for the classroom.
the ability to do something automatically– that is, without needing to focus much attention on it
auxiliaries: primary vs. secondary
primary auxiliary verbs: be, do, havesecondary auxiliary verbs: modals(Auxiliary verbs are those which serve a grammatical function, and can be contrasted with lexical verbs.)
In English, the two aspects are progressive and perfect.Aspect refers the speaker’s perception of how an event is taking place in time.

Learning as habit formation.Associated chiefly with audiolingualism.Rejection of mental processes such as thought/ reasoning.
the use of interjections to show that you are following what another person is saying (mmm, I see..

., Uh huh)

the changing of a verb from present to past in reported speech
backwash (or washback)
measurement-driven instruction: the effect that testing has on how a course is approached or taught
bottom-up processing
focusses on observable details, letters and words in the case of reading, in approaching and trying understand somethingthis gives no attention to larger concepts such as context, experience, or expectations
The largest grammatical unit smaller than a sentence.A group of words containing a verb.

Usually contains a subject also.May be linked using conjunctions.

finite clause
A clause which contains a finite verb– one which is marked for tense and agrees with the subject.
non-finite clause
Contains an infinite verb, or one which does not have to agree with a subject.

Having finished my homework,…To make a up of tea,..

.The project being finished,…

verbless clause
A clause in which the verb has been omitted.Once we were finished,.

.. –> Once finished,…

main clause
the clause which contains the main idea of a sentence
subordinate clause
A clause which is outranked.

That is, another clause contains the main idea of the sentences.There are three types:AdverbialRelativeReported

cleft sentence
A sort of split sentence which serves to emphasize some aspect of the sentence.My mother sent me a card. –> It was my mother who sent me a card.Note that the example above takes two verbs in place of one.
The shortening of a word to create a new word.

E.g., Fridge

Cloze test
Like a gap fill except that the space falls at regular intervals, making it fairly random in nature.

There will often be multiple possible answers.

code switching
The borrowing of a word or expression from the L1. Changing back and forth between 2 languages. Think: Spanglish.

cognitive learning theory
Stems from concepts in cognitive psychology, which is concerned with perception and mental processes.Follows and contrasts earlier behavioral theories.Piaget looked at first language acquisition and thought that children were testing commuicative hypotheses.Conscious mental activity –> unconscious (automaticity)
A quality of discourse meaning that it makes sense. A text can be grammatically sound but lack coherence, such as in the following:If there is a fault with the toilet paper, please call extension 1071.

Place in water halfway up basin. That’s where all the salty water comes from.In this example, it is difficult to see how the sentences all relate to each other.Things to look for: a common unifying theme, ability to connect ideas with linkers, relevance to context

A facet of discourse, this means that the parts of a text are conected through grammatical and lexical means.

lexical cohesion
repetition or words or related wordsuse of general words to refer back to something specific already metioned (the place, the girl, etc.)use or words coming from the same thematic fieldSubstitution with one/onesEllipsis of previously mentioned words to avoid repetition
grammatical cohesion
Reference devices such as pronouns; some use of determinersSubstitution of clause elements with do/does and so/not.Ellipsis of clause elements.Linkers, such as therefore, what’s more, then.

..Parallelism– sentences which reflect the structure of previous sentences

An example of grammatical cohesion where a sentence repeats the structure of a previous sentence.
communication strategy
Ways in which one gets aroud not knowing how to say something in the L2.Paraphrasing, word coinage, foreignizing, approximation, all purpose words, code-switching, paralinguistic devices, asking for help
strategic competence vs. linguistic competence
Although there is no arguing that strategic competences are useful, it’s also possible to overly rely on them to the detriment of developing linguistic competence, possibly resulting in fossilization.

communicative competence
This can be contrasted with the concept of linguistic competence, the ability to formulate sentences accurately. Communicative competence, and the related communicative approach, focuses more on the ability to communicate effectively.
CLL (Community Language Learning, or Counseling Learning)
Developed by Charles Curran in the 1970’sA humanistic method which allows learners to decide lesson content and sees the teacher more as a consultant.Students sit in a circle and initiate a conversation about a topic, refering to the teacher for help where needed.

The conversation is recorded, played back, and transcribed to the board. The T can then indicate errors, etc.

competency & competency-based teaching
A specific practical skill. These are often worded in CAN DO statements, such as “CAN take and pass on messages in an office setting.”Competency-based teaching is particularly useful in ESP.It is criticized for having a narrow view of language proficiency.

A clause element following a linking verb (be, seem) which privides additional information about the subject.E.g., The students are hardworking. The class seems enjoyable. Heather looks like her mother. What you see is what you get.

Evidenced by:The amount of subordination, including complex sentences.Pronouns for back-referencing.More lexical verbs as compared to linking verbs.

More content words as compared to function words.Use of conjunctions.Note that open ended and narration tasks are better for guaging complexity, and its best to allow some prep time.

complex sentence
A sentence which contains a main clause and one or more dependent clauses.


co-ordination (as compared to subordination)
fixed phrases
language that is used to tell the listening or reader about the structure of what is being presented, to orient the person on the receiving end as to the flow of information