Face-work: the efforts of people to maintain the proper image and avoid public embarrassment. Gender role: expectations regarding (v pHn) the proper behavior, attitudes, and activities of males and females. Generalized other: The attitudes, viewpoints, and expectations of society as a whole that a child takes into account (xt dn) in his or he behavior. Impression management: The altering (change) of the presentation of the self in order to create distinctive appearances and satisfy particular audiences.
Life course approach: the research orientation in which sociologists and other social scientists look closely at the social factor that influence people throughout their lives, from birth to death. Cooking-glass self: A concept that emphasizes the self as the product of our social interactions with others. Personality: A person’s typical patterns of attitudes, needs, characteristics, and behavior. Rationalization: The process of discarding former behavior patterns and accepting new ones as part of a transition in on?s life.
Rite of passage: Ritual marking the symbolic transition from one social position to another. Role taking: The process of mentally assuming their perspective of another ND responding from that imagined viewpoint Self: A distinct identity that sets us apart from others Significant other: An individual who is most important in the development of the self, such as parent, friend, or teacher. Colonization: The lifelong process in which people learn the attitudes, values, and behaviors appropriate for members of a particular culture.
Symbol: A gesture, object, or word that forms the basis of human communication Total institutions: An institution that regulate all aspects of a person’s life under a single authority, such as prison, the military, a mental hospital, or a invent Achieved status: A social position that a person attains largely through his or her own efforts. Agrarian society: The most technologically advanced form of presidential society.
Members are engaged primarily in the production food but increase their crop yield through technological innovations such as the plow (CIA cay) Ascribed status: A Social position that is assigned to a person by society without regard for the person’s unique talents or characteristics. Gamesmanship: A close-knit community, often found in rural areas, in which strong personal bonds unite members Shillelaghs: A community, often urban, that is large and impersonal, with little commitment to the group or consensus on values.
Group: Any number of people with similar norms, values, expectations who interact with one another on a regular basis. Horticultural society: A presidential society in which people plant seeds and crops rather than merely subsist (ton tat) on available foods. Hunting-and-gathering society: A presidential society in which people rely on whatever foods and fibers (TVA) are readily available in order to survive Industrial society: A society that depends on mechanization to produce its odds and services Master status: A status that dominates others and thereby determines a person’s general position in society.
Mechanical solidarity (thong neat): A collective consciousness that emphasizes group solidarity, characteristic of societies with minimal division of labor Net neutrality: The principle that the government should remain nonconsecutive or neutral toward online content. Organic solidarity: A collective consciousness that rests on mutual interdependence, characteristic of societies with a complex division of labor.
Post industrial society: A society whose economic system is engaged primarily n the processing and control of information Postmodern society: A technologically sophisticated society that is preoccupied with consumer goods and media images Role conflict: The situation that occurs when incompatible expectations arise from 2 or more social positions held by the same person Role Exit: The process of disengagement from a role that is central to one’s self-identity in order to establish a new role and identity.
Role strain: The difficulty that arises when the same social position imposes conflicting demands and expectations Social institution: An organized pattern of beliefs and behavior centered on Asia social needs. Social interaction: The ways in which people respond to one another Social network: A series of social relationships that links a person directly to others and through them indirectly to still more people Social role: A set of expectations for people who occupy a given social position or status.
Social structure: The way in which a society is organized into predictable Status: A term used by sociologists to refer to any of the full range of socially defined positions within a large group or society. Alienation (XA Lana): A condition of estrangement (lam ghee Lana) or association (each lye) from the surrounding society Bureaucracy: A component of formal organization that uses rules and hierarchical ranking to achieve efficiency.
Bureaucratically: The process by which a group, organization, or social movement becomes increasingly bureaucratic Classical theory: An approach to the study of formal organizations that views workers as being motivated almost entirely by economic rewards. Coalition (lien get): A temporary or permanent alliance geared toward a common goal Dyad: a 2 member group Formal organization: A group designed for a special purpose and structured for Max efficiency Goal displacement: Overzealous (qua itch cue) conformity (tuna thee) to official regulations of a bureaucracy.
Group: any number of people with similar norms, values, and expectations who interact with one another on a regular basis. Grouping: Uncritical acceptance of or conformity to the prevailing (pooh been) viewpoint Human relations approach: An approach to the study of formal organizations that emphasizes the role of people, communication, and participation in a bureaucracy and tends to focus on the informal structure of the organizations. In-group: Any group or category to which people feel they belong
Ideal type: A construct or model for evaluating specific cases Iron law of oligarchy (the chew dad so): A principle of organizational life under which even a democratic organization will eventually develop into a bureaucracy ruled by a few individuals Labor union: Organized workers who share either the same skill or the same employer Nationalization: The process by which the principles of the fast-food restaurant are coming to dominate more and more sectors of American society as well as the rest of the world Peter principle.