AP Euro Chapter 19: Romanticism

19th-century western European artistic and literary movement; held that emotion and impression, not reason, were the keys to the mysteries of human experience and nature; sought to portray passions, not calm reflections

Sturm and Drang
Germanic, literally meaning “Storm and Stress” Movement in German Romantic literature that emphasized feeling and emotion.

Believed people in their natural state were basically good but that they were corrupted by the evils of society, especially the uneven distribution of property
“Noble Savage”

German philosopher whose synthesis of rationalism and empiricism, in which he argued that reason is the means by which the phenomena of experience are translated into understanding, marks the beginning of idealism. His classic works include Critique of Pure Reason (1781) and Critique of Practical Reason (1788), in which he put forward a system of ethics based on the categorical imperative.

Categorical Imperative
A concept developed by the philosopher Immanuel Kant as an ethical guideline for behavior. In deciding whether an action is right or wrong, or desirable or undesirable, a person should evaluate the action in terms of what would happen if everybody else in the same situation, or category, acted the same way.

Victor Hugo
1802-1885. French author. Wrote Les Miserables and The Hunchback of Notre Dame

Romantic poet, part of Lyrical Ballads with Wordsworth

William Wordsworth
(1770-1850) Romantic poet, used one of the most important aspects of Romanticism: love of nature.
Lyrical Ballads

Lord Byron
Was an important British Romantic poet. His works include “She walks in Beauty” and the unfinished “Don Juan.” Many consider him to embody the spirit of Romanticism. He died from an illness contracted while in Greece, where he was supporting their independence movement.

(1749- 1832). German poet, dramatist, novelist and scientist. Goethe’s poetry expresses a modern view of humanity’s relationship to nature, history, and society; his plays and novels reflect a profound understanding of human individuality. Goethe’s importance can be judged by the influence of his critical writings, his vast correspondence, and his poetry, dramas and novels upon the writers of his own time and up on the literary movements which he inaugurated and of which he was the chief figure.

John Constable
(1776-1821), English romantic painter, painted gentle landscapes in which human beings were at peace with their environments
Salisbury Cathedral

It refers to constituting a revival or adaptation of the Gothic especially in architecture. Example: Horace Walpole’s “Strawberry Hill”

The Sublime
subjects from nature that aroused strong emotions, such as fear, dread, and awe, and raise questions about whether and how much we control our lives.

Caspar David Friedrich
German romantic artist who emphasized mystery in God and nature; painted Man and Woman Gazing at the Moon. The Wanderer Above the Sea of Fog

JMW Turner
This English painter specialized in landscapes. He reflected the changing political world in his art, which depicted dramatic and colorful scenes. He was a Romantic artist; before Romanticism, English art was primarily portraiture.
Slave Ship

John Wesley
English clergyman and founder of Methodism (1703-1791)

A religion founded by John Wesley. Insisted strict self-discipline and a methodical approach to religious study and observance. Emphasized an intense personal salvation and a life of thrift, abstinence, and hard work.

said the essence of religion is a passion; his book was known as the “bible of Romanticism”

Johann Herder
Influential German Writer (1744-1803) he wrote Ideas on the Philosophy of the History of Mankind in which he said that each country should have its own national identity not one borrowed from another country, he called it Volksgeist., German philosopher who advocated intuition over reason (1744-1803); advocated intuition over reason

Friedrich Hegel
the most important German philosopher of history during the Romantic period; he believed that ideas develop in an evolutionary fashion that involves conflict; he also believed that periods of world history receive their character from the patterns of thought that predominate during them; he also believed that all periods of history were of equal value because each was necessary to achievements of those that came later

Mary Shelley
English writer who wrote Frankenstein and married Percy Bysshe Shelley (1797-1851)

Brothers Grimm
Second half of the 19th century German brothers who collected German fairytales and aided the cause of German nationalism by showing Germans that they shared the same literature and thus similar values.

Eugene Delacroix
French romantic painter, master of dramatic colorful scenes that stirred the emotions. Greatest romantic painters. Fascinated with remote and exotic subjects. Masterpiece: Liberty Leading the People

(1770-1827) French, purely Romantic composer, transformed the art of music. Used music to convey his feelings of what was going on in the world around him, such as the many French revolutions of that time; Third Symphony, also called the Eroica (originally written for Napoleon) and Ninth Symphony, composed when he was completely deaf

(1810-1849) Pianist – but did not prefer to pursue a career in performance. Preferred small, intimate gatherings. Known for etudes, preludes, waltzes, scherzos, polonaises, and nocturnes (miniatures). Also composed extended works, such as three solo piano sonatas and two piano concertos

Guiseppe Verdi
The preeminent Italian opera composer in the 19th century. His music is chromatic that Wagner’s, and has an energy that is characteristically “Italianate”. Famous works include “Rigoletto” and “Macbeth”. However, his works later in life started to resemble the style of Wagner (like with “Falstaf” and “Othello”)

Die Walkure