A center of trade of goods and ideas. The Birthplace of Renaissance Humanism.
A movement that emphasized secular ideas, education, and the education of man.
Considered servants to Christendom; Their business was peace.
Create by Marsillo Ficino, said that just as all people are bound by love, so too are all parts of the universe held together by bonds of sympathetic love.
The moving away from religious and Gothic ideas to worldly things
Carl Jacob Christoph Burckhardt was a historian of art and culture, and an influential figure in the historiography of each field. He is known as one of the major progenitors of cultural history
Cosimo di Giovanni degli Medici was the first of the Medici political dynasty, de facto rulers of Florence during much of the Italian Renaissance; also known as “Cosimo ‘the Elder'” and “Cosimo Pater Patriae”
Francesco I Sforza was an Italian condottiero, the founder of the Sforza dynasty in Milan, Italy. He was the brother of Alessandro, with whom he often fought.
Isabella d’Este was Marchesa of Mantua and one of the leading women of the Italian Renaissance as a major cultural and political figure.
Wrote “The Prince”. It was controversial in how it promoted ideas that are commonly deemed unethical, and how it supported rule by force.
The Father of Christian Humanism.
Leonardo Bruni was an Italian humanist, historian and statesman. He has been called the first modern historian.
Lorenzo Valla was an Italian humanist, rhetorician, and educator. He is best known for his textual analysis that proved that the Donation of Constantine was a forgery.
Marsilio Ficino was one of the most influential humanist philosophers of the early Italian Renaissance, an astrologer, a reviver of Neoplatonism.
Invented the Modern Printing press. This is significant because it allowed writings to be mass published.
one of the most important royal houses of Europe and is best known for being an origin of all of the formally elected Holy Roman Emperors between 1438 and 1740
Wycliffe and Lollardy
a political and religious movement that existed from the mid-14th century to the English Reformation.
The term “Lollard” refers to the followers of John Wycliffe.Its demands were primarily for reform of Western Christianity.
Christian humanism emphasizes the humanity of Jesus, his social teachings and his propensity to synthesize human spirituality and materialism. It regards humanist principles like universal human dignity and individual freedom and the primacy of human happiness as essential and principal components of, or at least compatible with, the teachings of Jesus Christ. Christian humanism can be perceived as a philosophical union of Judeo-Christian ethics and humanist principles.
“Salvation through faith alone.”
The idea that having faith and being a good person was enough qualification for salvation, and that sacraments were not truly necessary.
The selling of church offices.
Nepotism is favoritism granted to relatives regardless of merit.
Money payed to the church and in return the payee would be “guaranteed” salvation. In reality this money went to pay the church’s private debts.
The Great Schism
is the medieval division of Chalcedonian Christianity into Eastern (Greek) and Western (Latin) branches.
An intellectual is a person who primarily uses intelligence in either a professional or an individual capacity. As a substantive or adjective, it refers to the work product of such persons, to the so-called “life of the mind” generally, or to an aspect of something where learning, erudition, and informed and critical thinking are the focus, as in “the intellectual level of the discourse on the matter was not high”.
The Absolute sovereignty of God; said that some men were chosen to be saved, while others were chosen to be damned.
Martin Luther was a German monk, priest, professor of theology and iconic figure of the Protestant Reformation. He strongly disputed the claim that freedom from God’s punishment for sin could be purchased with money.
Pope Leo X
Pope Leo X, born Giovanni di Lorenzo de’ Medici, was the Pope from 1513 to his death in 1521. He was the last non-priest to be elected Pope.
Johann Tetzel was a German Dominican preacher known for selling indulgences.
Huldrych Zwingli was a leader of the Reformation in Switzerland. Criticized for copying Luther.
John Calvin was an influential French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation. He was a principal figure in the development of the system of Christian theology later called Calvinism. Which became the militant form of Protestantism.
King Henry VIII
Besides being well known for his many wives, his urge to divorce his wife Catherine of Aragon led him to break from the church.
Pope Clement VII
Clement VII, born Giulio di Giuliano de’ Medici, was a cardinal from 1513 to 1523 and was Pope from 1523 to 1534. (the Medici pope).
Diet of Worms
Trial of Martin Luther during 1521 were he was outlawed.
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His appearance made a major impact on Protestantism’s spread.
Peace of Augsburg
It officially ended the religious struggle between the two groups and made the legal division of Christendom permanently within the Holy Roman Empire. The Peace established the principle Cuius regio, eius religio, which allowed Holy Roman Empire’s states’ princes to select either Lutheranism or Catholicism within the domains they controlled, ultimately reaffirming the independence they had over their states.
Subjects, citizens, or residents who did not wish to conform to the prince’s choice were given a period in which they were free to emigrate to different regions in which their desired religion had been accepted. (between schlmalkaldic league and Charles V).
Thirty years war
Was a series of wars fought primarily in central Europe. The end result was the end of the Church’s political control over the region.
Council of Trent
Considered one of the church’s most important councils.
Its goals were to bring back Christians to Catholicism, and to end the spread/abolish Protestantism.
War of three Henry’s
The War of the Three Henrys (1587-1589) was the eighth and final conflict in the series of civil wars in France known as the Wars of Religion. The war was fought between the royalists, led by Henry III of France; the Huguenots, led by the heir-presumptive Henry of Navarre; and the Catholic League, led by Henry I, Duke of Guise and funded and supported by Philip II of Spain.
Edict of Nantes
The Edict of Nantes, issued on 13 April 1598, by Henry IV of France, granted the Calvinist Protestants of France (also known as Huguenots) substantial rights in a nation still considered essentially Catholic. His goals were to promote civil unity
Protestantism is one of the major groupings within Christianity. It has been defined as “any of several church denominations denying the universal authority of the Pope and affirming the Reformation principles of justification by faith alone, the priesthood of all believers, and the primacy of the Bible as the only source of revealed truth” and, more broadly, to mean Christianity outside “of a Catholic or Eastern church”.
Catholic church/Holy roman empire
The Holy roman empire was countries controlled by the Catholic Church such as France, and Spain.
a Christian male religious order that follows the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church. Founded by Ignatius
was a defensive alliance of Lutheran princes within the Holy Roman Empire during the mid-16th century. Although originally started for religious motives soon after the start of the Protestant Reformation, its members eventually intended for the League to replace the Holy Roman Empire as their source of political allegiance.