AP Gov Vocab Test 1

Having two chambers or branches in the legislative body
Bill of Rights
First 10 amendments in the Constitution came up from the Anti-Federalists.
Block Grants
federal grants given more or less automatically to the states or communities to support broad programs in areas such as community development and social services
Brown v. Board of Education
finding that seperate public schools for blacks and whites were inherently unequal and therefore unconstitutional
Categorical Grant
targeted for specific purposes, such as federal grants to states for disaster assistance; restrictions on their use leave little discretion to the goverbment recieving the grant
Checks and Balances
a means of giving each branch some scrutiny and control over the other branches
Commerece Clause
the third clause of Article 1, Section 8, of the Constitution, which gives Congressa the power to regulate commerce among the states’
Concurrent Power
powrers shared by the national and state governments
Cooperative Federalism
System of government in which power and policy assignments are shared between the states and the national government.
transferring responsibility for policies from the federal govermnet to state and local governments
Direct Democracy
all members of the group meet to make decisions themselves’
Dual Federalism
implies the existence of distinct layers of government, each with powers in their own spheres; these powers are not mixed or shared
Elastic Clause(necessary and proper clause)
the last clause in Section 8 of Article 1 of the Constitution, which gives Congress the means to execute its numerated powers and the basis for Congress’s implied powers
Enumerated Powers
the powers explicitly granted to Congress by the Constitution
Small, organized, dissenting group within a larger one, especially in politics.
System of shared power between units of government.

Fiscal Federalism
Pattern of spending, taxing, and providing grants in the federal system; cornerstone of relations between nation and state governments.
Funded Mandates
when the federal government give the states money to help them do whatever they want them to do
Gibbons v. Ogden
Gave Congress power to regulate interstate commerce
Implied Power
those powers that Congress needs to execute its enumerated powers
Inherent Power
Authority claimed by the President that is not clearly specified in the Constitution. Typically, these powers are inferred from the Constitution.

Interest Group
Group, however loosely or tightly organized
Judicial Review
the power to declare congressional (and presidential) acts invalid becasue they violate the Constitution
Layer Cake Federalim
dual federalism
a representative of an interest group
Marble Cake Federalism
cooperative federalism
McCulloh v. Maryland
1819–The Court ruled that states cannot tax the federal government, i.e. the Bank of the United States; the phrase “the power to tax is the power to destroy”; confirmed the constitutionality of the Bank of the United States.

New Jersey Plan
Submitted by the head of the New Jersey delegation to the Constitutional Convention of 1787; a set of nine resolutions that would have, in effect, preserved the Articles of Confederation by amending rather than replacing them
Opinion Polls
Interviews or surveys with samples of citizens to estimate the feelings and beliefs of the entire population

 The Los Angeles Time did a poll on January 14th, 2005 about abortion. 41% favored making it illegal with a few exceptions. 24% favored making it legal. 19% favored making legal most of the time. 12% favored making it totally illegal.

Plessy v.

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The rights of states to pass laws allowing or even requiring racial segregation in public and private institutions such as schools, public transportation, restrooms, and restaurants.
Introduction of the Constitution stating its purposes, aims, and justifications.
Public Policy
a general plan of action adopted by the governmenr to solve a social problem, counter a threat, or pursue an objective
Representative Democracy
citizens choose officials to make decisions to for them
Reserve Power
State Powers, which include: Regulate trade within the state, establish local government systems, conduct elections, establish public school systems
Separate But Equal
Legal doctrine in United States constitutional law that justified and permitted racial segregation as not being in breach of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution which guaranteedequal protection under the law to all citizens, and other federal civil rights laws.
Seperation of Powers
Act of vesting powers of the branches into separate bodies. Separation of powers to prevent an overpower of a branch in the government.
Unfunded Mandates
a statute or regulation that requires a state or local government to perform certain actions, yet provides no money for fulfilling the requirements
Virgina Plan
a set of proposals for a new government, submitted to the Constitutional Convention of 1787; included separation of the government into three branches, division of the legislature into two houses, and proportional representation in the legislature