composed of small groups of peole who traveled from point to point as the climate and availability of plants and animals dictated.
domestication of animals
new stone or agricultural revolution around 3000 b.c.e.
contrast nomadic vs.
agricultural involved emotional and psychological issues, nomadic was moving around
what contributes to the development of a civilization
specialization of labor is key
figured out how to combine copper with tin to create an even harder metal
made up of an urabn center and the agricultural land around it under its control
civilzations during 3000 – 2000 bce
meospotamia, egypt, india, china, and americas
land bwetween 2 river; tigris and euphrates; sumer, babylon, and persia; known as the fertile crescent
ur, erech, and kish were major city-states; 3000 b.c.e., southern part of mesopotamia, form of writing called cunneiform to set down laws, treaties, and important social and religious customs; intro of wheel, 12 month calender, a math system based on 60, polytheistic, ziggurats, overthrown by 1700 bce
akkad; 1700; babylon; code of hammurabi – major n minor offenses, a sense of justice and fairness; kassities and hittes, 1500 iron; assyrians, iron, nineveh, medes and chaldeans, chaldean king rebuilt babylon as a showplace (nebuchadnezzar)
500 bce; from nile to eatern mediterranean though present-day turkey and parts of greece, and eatward though afganistan; great royal road 1,600 miles from persian gulf to the aegean sea
big accomplishments during agriculural
code of hammurabi, and iron; as civilizations were conquered their cultural heritagee, religions,laws, and customs, and technologies were rarely lost
lydians, phoenicias, hebrews
Lydians: coined money, cosistent prices Phoenicias: power naval city-states, alphabet using 22 letters, Hebrews: 1000 bce judaism, monotheistic, gods chosen people
soil was rich, nile, predictable unike mesopotamia, old, middle, and new kingdom, during new it reached its helight.
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1400 bcc.e from upper nile to palestine n parts of asi minor (800 miles; king meses (b4 old), pharoahs, hieoglyphic, claender, timber and tone, gold and spices, polytheistics, mummification, queen hatsheput, women rights, SS: pharoash, preists, noblesm merchantsn skilled workers, peseants, slaves