[image]Sunni Ali (1464-1493) embarked on a campaign to conquer his neighbors and consolidated the Songhay empire (1461-1591)
[image]Sunni Ali built an elaborate administrative and military apparatus to oversee affairs in his realm.He appointed Governers to oversee provinces and instituted a hierarchy of command that turned his army into an effective military force.
Fall Of Songhay
[image]In 1591 a musket bearing Moroccan army trekked across the Sahara and opened fire on the previously invincible Songhay military machine. Songhay forces withered under the attack and subject peoples took the opprtunity to revolt against Songhay domination.
[image]The swahili city sates of east Africa fell on hard times.Thet disrupted trade patterns enough to send swahili cities into a decline from which the never fully recovered
The Kingdom Of Kongo
[image]Porteuese merchants had established a close political and diplomatic relationship with the kings of kongo .They supplied the kings with advisors provided a military garrision to support the kings and protect Portuguese interest and brought tailors shoemakers etc.
The kings of kongo converted to christianity as a way to establish closer commercial relations with Portuguese merchants and diplomatic relations with the Portuguese monarchy
Slave Raiding in Kongo
Relations with Portugal brought wealth and foreign recognition to Kongo but also led eventually to the destruction of the kingdom and the establishment of a Portuguese colony in Angola In exchange for the textiles weapons advisors and artisans that they brought to Kongo Poetuguese merchants sought high value merchandise such as copper ivory and most of all slaves[image]
The Kingdom of Ndongo
Ndongo had grown from small chiefdom [image]subject to the kings of Kongo to a poowerful regional kingdom largely on the basis of the wealth it was bale to attract by trading directly with Portuguese merchnts rather than through Kongolese intermediaries Portuguese merchants founded a small coastal colony in Ndongo as early as 1575.After 1611 they steadily increased their influence inland by allying with neighboring people who deliverd increasing numbers of war captives to feed growing slave trade.
Reigned 1623-1663 led spirited resisitance against Portuguese forces.
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Nzinga came from a long line of warrior kings .She dressed male warriors.[image]
The Portuguese Colony of Angola
Their powwerful arms ad considerable wealth Poertuguese forces were able to exploit the political divisions that perennially plagued central Africa.extended and tightened their control over Angola the first European colony in sub saharan Africa [image]
European Arrival in South Africa
[image]Dutch Mariners began to play arole in south African affairs.In search of commercial opportunites, Europeans struck alliances with local people and intervened in disputes with the aim of supporting their alliesand advancing their own interest.
They became especially active after Dutch mariners built a trading post in Cape Town.
Islam in Sub Saharan Africa
Islam attracted increasing interest in sub-sharan Africa. Islam was most popular in the commercial centers of west Africa and the Swahili city states of east Africa Most African Muslims Blended Islam with indigenous beliefs and customs.The result was a synretic brand of Islam that not only made a place for African beliefs in spirits and magic but also peritted men and women to associate with one another on much more familiar terms than was common in north Africa,Arabia,and southwest Asia[image]
The Fulani and Islam
By the late seventeeth century many Fulani had settled in citieswhere they observed a strict form of Islam like that practicerd in north Africa and Arabia.
Beginning about 1680 and continuing throuugh the nineteeth century the Fulani led a series of military campaigns to establish islamic states and impose their own brand of islam in west Africa[image]
American Foods Crops in Sub Saharan Africa
Trade also brought new food crops to sub saharan Africa .In Mid sevenneeth century American crops such as manioc maize and peanuts arrived in Africa aboard Portuguese ships.These crops supplemented bananas yams rice and milletthe pricipal staple food of sub saharan africa.The most important American crop was manioc because of its high yeild and because it thrived in tropical soils not wel suited to cultivation of the other crops[image]
flour had become a staple food in much of west Africa and central Africa where it helped to underwrite steady population growth .
In 1500 C.E. the population of sub sharan Africa was about thirty four million.BY 1600 it had increased by almost one third to fourty four million and it contnued climbing to fifty two million[image]
Slavery In Africa
Slavery appeared in remote antiquity and until the nineteenth century many settled agricultural peoples.Slavery was common throughout Africa after the Bantu migrations spread agricultural to all parts of the continent.
As in other societies most slaves in Africa came from the ranks of war captives although criminals and indiviuals had no personal civil rights[image]
The Islamic Slave Trade
traffic slaves was a well establishedfeature of African society and more than five hundred years.When Europeans began to pursue commercial interest ion Africa and the Americans the slave trade expanded dramatically .[image]
The demand for labor in the western hemisphere stimulated a profitable commerce known as the triangular trade since european ships often undertook voyages of three legs.
On the first leg they carried horses and European manufactured goods mostly cloth and metal wares especially firearms that they exchanged in Africa for slaves.The secdond leg toook ensslaved Africans to Carribean and American destination.Upon arrival merchants sold their cargoes to plantation owners for two to three times what they had cost on the African coast[image]
The Middle Passage
Following capture enslaved indivivuals underwent a forced march to the coast where they lived i gholding pens until a ship arrived to transport them to the western hemisphere.Then they embarked on the dreadful middle passage the trans atlantic journey aboard filthy and crowded slave ships Enslaved passangers traveled below decks in hideous cramped quarters Most ships provided slaves with enough room to sit upright although not to stand.[image]
Volume of Slave Trade
Atlantic slave trade operated on a modest scale exported varied considerably from one year to the next but on average about two thousand slaves left Africa anually during the late fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.[image]
crop grown to sell: a crop grown for direct sale, and not for personal consumption[image]
Social Effects of the Slave Trade
[image]African sex ratios approximately two thirds of all expored slaves were males.
Slavers preffered young males.Women made up two thirds of the adult population of Angola.This sexual imbalance encouraged Angolas to practice polygamy and forced women to take on duties that in earlier times had been the responsibility of men
Resistance To Slavery
No matter where they lived slaves did not meekly accept their servile status nut like Thomas Peters resisted it in numerous ways.Some Forms of resistance were mild but costly to slave owners.Slave often worked slowly for their masters but dignetly in in their own gardens[image]
Slaves far Outnumbered others in most plantation societies and they has the potential to organixze and overwhelm their masters.Slave Revolts brought stark fear to plantation owners ans supervisors and they often resulted in widespread death and destruction.[image]
African American Religion
slave religions also combined elements from different societies .
Many were already Christian or converted to christianity.Most did not practice European Christianity but rather a syncretic daith that made xonsiderable room for African interest.[image]
African American Cultural Traditions
African Traditions also made their effects felt throughout much of western hemisphere.Slaves introduced African foods to Carribean and American Societies and helped give rise to distinctive hybrid cuisines[image]
African And Creole Languages
African Languages also influenced communication.
African slaves from a particular reigon were numerous enough to speak among themselves in their natives tongues.[image]
1745-1797 who in 1789 published an autobiography detailing his experiences as a slave and a free man(abolitionist)[image]
The Economic Costs Of Slavery
economic forces also contributed to the end of slavery and the slave trade.Plantations slavery,and slave trade continued to flourish as long as they were profitable notwithstanding the efforts of abolitionists[image]
End of the Slave Trade
In 1803 Denmark abolished trade in slaves and other lands followed the Danish.
The end of the legal commerce in slaves did not abolish the institution of slvery itself however and as long as plantation slavery continued a clandestine trade shipped slaves across the atlantic.
The Abolition Of Slavery
the aboltion of the institution of slavery itself was a long and drawn out process emanicipation of all slaves cam in 1833 in British Coloonies1848 in French colonies 1865 in the United States ans 1886 in Cuba and 1888 in Brazil[image]
The Great Walls
Wall was used to protect the Ming realm its 49 feet high and features a watch tower signal tower an accommodations for troops deployed on the borders[image]
early Ming rule did not survive beyond the mid sixteenth century when a series of problems weakened the dynasty.From the 1520’s to the 1560’s pirates and smugglers operated almost at will along the east coast of china Both the Ming navy and coastal defenses were ineffective and conflicts with pirates often led to the disruption of coastal communities and sometimes even interior reigons.[image]
When a series of famines struck China during the early seventeenth century,the government was unable to organize effective relief efforts.Peasants in famine struck reigons ate grass roots and tree bark.Manchu forces invaded from the north in search of oppurtunites for expansion of china.[image]
Manchus poured into China from their homeland of Manchuria north of the Great Wall.The victors proclaimed a new dynasty the qing dynasty which ruled China until the early twentieth century(1644-1911) a powerful military fore[image]
Moralist portrayed the Chinese people as one large family and they extended family values to the larger society.
confucian principles subjected women to the authority of mean.Chinese parents preferred boys over girls.Where as a boy might have the opportunity to take the official examinations become the government official and thereby bring honor and financial reward to the entire clan parents regarded a girl as a social and financial liability.[image]
a custom that originated in the song dynasty became exceptionally popular during the late Ming and qing dynasties.Tightly constrained and deformed strips of lining bound feet could not grow naturally.The practice of footbinding became widespread among wealthy classes.
American Food Crops
China farmers relied on intensive garden style agriculture that was highly productive[image]
Spanish merchants coming by way of the Philippines introduced American food crops to china.Amercian maize sweet patatoes,and peanuts permitted Chinese farmers to take advantage of soils that supply ans supported further population growth[image]
While limiting the activities of foreign merchants government policies also discouraged the organization of large scale commercial ventures by Chinese merchants[image]
Except for the emperor and his family scholar-beauracrats and gentry occupied the most exalted positions in chinese society.Because of their official positions the scholar-bureaucrats ranked slightly above gentry[image]
Confucian tradition ranked three broad classes of commoners below the the gentry peasants ,artisans or workers and merchants.
By far the biggest class consisted of peasants,a designation that covered everyone from day laborers to tenant farmers to petty landlords[image]
street peddlers to indivivuals of enormous wealth and influence ranked at the bottom level of the confucian social hierarchy merchants enjoyed little legal protction and government policy was always critically important to their pursuits[image]
Beyond the Confucian social hierarchy were members of the military forces and the so-called mean people.Confucian moralist regarded armed forces as a wretched but necessary evil and attempted to avoid military dominance of society by placing civilian bureaucrats in the highest command positions even at the expense of military effectiveness. the mean people included slaves indentured servants entertainers prostitutes and other marginal groups like the beggars of Jiangsu and the boat people of Guangdong[image]
established a military government since it theoretically was only a temporary replacement for the emperors.Ieyasu and his descendants ruled the bakufu as shoguns from1600 until the end of the Tokugawa dynasty in 1867.[image]
Control of the Daimyo
the shogun governed his own personal domain and sought to extend his control to the daimyo.The shoguns instituted the policy of alternate attendance which required daimyto to maintain their families at edo and spend every other year at the Tokugawa court[image]
Control of Foreign Relations
The shoguns issued a series of edicts sharply restricting Japanese relations with other lands that remained in effect for more than two centuries[image]
entertainment and pleasure quarters where teahouses threaters brothels and public baths offered escape from social responsiblities and rigid rules of conduct that governed public behavior in Tokugawa society .In contrast to the solemn serious proceedings of the imperial court and the bakufu the popular culture of urban residents was secular satirical and even scatoological.[image]
Confucian scholars looked down on popular novels as crude fiction that had little to do with the relities of the world .Printing made it possible to produce books cheap and in mass quantities.”The Romance Of The Three Kingdoms” “Dream Of The Red Chamber” “Journey To The West”[image]