APA

Abbreviations
Spell out a word the first time with the abbreviation in parentheses; then you can use the abbreviation throughout your paper, for example United States (U.S.).
Paraphrase
(Author’s Last Name, Year)
Direct Quote
(Author’s Last Name, Year, p. #)
Block Quote
Display a quotation of more than 40 words as free-standing block of text indented 5 spaces from the left margin (doubles spaced as usual). Omit the quotation marks and include the page number in parentheses after the last period. Also, if the quotation is more than one paragraph, indent the first line of the second and any additional paragraphs 5 spaces.
Common Knowledge
The source of all information and ideas that are not common knowledge need to be clearly identified with a citation.
Conclusion
The conclusion brings closure to the reader, summing up your points or providing a final perspective on your topic.

All the conclusion needs is three or four strong sentences which do not need to follow any set formula. Simply review the main points (being careful not to restate them exactly) or briefly describe your feelings about the topic. Even an anecdote can end your essay in a useful way.

Remember to label your conclusion as such.

Counter-Argument
Where are your counter-arguments? Counter-argument can appear anywhere in the essay, but it most commonly appears as 1) part of your introduction-before you propose your thesis-where the existence of a different view is the motive for your essay, the reason it needs writing; 2) as a section or paragraph just after your introduction, in which you lay out the expected reaction or standard position before turning away to develop your own; 3) as a quick move within a paragraph, where you imagine a counter-argument not to your main idea but to the sub-idea that the paragraph is arguing or is about to argue; 4) as a section or paragraph just before the conclusion of your essay, in which you imagine what someone might object to what you have argued.

But watch that you don’t overdo it. A turn into counter-argument here and there will sharpen and energize your essay, but too many such turns will have the reverse effect by obscuring your main idea or suggesting that you’re ambivalent.

Double Space
The paper is double-spaced, throughout including the references.
Font
Use either Times Roman or Courier, 12 pt.
In-Text Parenthetical Citations
APA style requires the use of parenthetical citations within the text of a paper to document quotes, paraphrases, summaries, and other sources used. These references refer to entries on the References list at the end of the paper and take the place of footnotes or endnotes. All authors cited in the text must appear in the references list, and all authors listed must have been cited in the text.
Introduction of Your Paper
The Introduction Of Your Paper Is Also The Title Of Your Paper, Written in Title Case and Centered
Level One Headings
Headings indicate organization of paper and establish importance. Use Level 1 at least to better organize your paper. Level one headings (centered, uppercase and lowercase) should be used to help with the flow.
No Author
When a work has no author, use the first two or three words of the work’s title (omitting any initial articles) as your text reference, capitalizing each word. Place the title in quotation marks if it refers to an article or chapter of a book, or italicize it if it refers to a book, periodical, brochure, or report.
No Date, No Author
Because there is no date and no author, your text citation would include the first couple of words from the title and “n.d.” for no date (e.g., para. 5, “Style List,” n.d.).

The entry in the reference list might look something like this:

Style list for references. (n.d.). Retrieved January 1, 2001,
from http://www.apa.org

Indent
Indent each paragraph 5-7 spaces. Be consistent throughout your document.
Personal Communication
Here’s what the APA Manual (5th ed.) says about personal communication (section 3.102): “Personal communications may be letters, memos, some electronic communications, telephone conversations, and the like. Because they do not provide recoverable data, personal communications are not included on the reference list. Cite personal communications in text only. Give the initials as well as the surname of the communicator, and provide as exact a date as possible.” For example: N.E. Migan (personal communication, January 11, 2001)
Why Cite?
Why do we cite sources?
One purpose of citations is to leave a trail of clues for interested readers. When you document papers correctly, you provide others with a way to access the sources you have used. Another purpose of citation is to promote ethical responsibility and academic consistency in a discipline’s writing community. If you do not cite and document your sources carefully, you run the risk of plagiarism.
Thesis Statement
A thesis statement:

* tells the reader how you will interpret the significance of the subject matter under discussion.
* is a road map for the paper; in other words, it tells the reader what to expect from the rest of the paper.
* directly answers the question asked of you. A thesis is an interpretation of a question or subject, not the subject itself. The subject, or topic, of an essay might be World War II or Moby Dick; a thesis must then offer a way to understand the war or the novel that others might dispute.
* is usually a single sentence somewhere in your first paragraph that presents your argument to the reader. The rest of the paper, the body of the essay, gathers and organizes evidence that will persuade the reader of the logic of your interpretation.

Rules for Lists
Rules for lists in APA:
For listed items within a paragraph like this (a) use letters, not numbers, in parentheses;
and (b) separate each item with a comma; unless (c) there is already a comma in one of
the clauses. In that case, separate the elements with a semicolon.

1. When listing items vertically, or breaking them out of the
paragraph, use 1., 2., 3., and so forth, and continue to double-
space.
2. Tab the first number.
3. If sentences run over the line like this one does, keep
typing back to the left margin, as is shown here.
4. End each item in a list like this with a period, even if it is
not a complete sentence.
5. Double-space lists, unless the list appears in a block quote.

Wikipedia – No!
As it says on the home page, this is “the free encyclopedia that anyone can edit.” This can result in inaccurate or biased articles. Never use Wikipedia as a source for any of your papers. There are better sources available.
The Author Believes….
If this is your opinion, start the sentence out with “The author believes” or something similar.
Use the Third Person
Third person points-of-view (e.g., he, she, and they as well as their accusative, dative, and possessive forms) should be used. Another way to refer to yourself is ‘The author’. No first and second person points-of-view (e.g., I, you, we) are used in academic writing.
Page Header
Page Headers are the first two or three words of the title. Type 5 spaces to the left of page #

*To insert a page header in Microsoft Word, select “View,” then “Header and Footer.” This brings up the header box and the Header and Footer toolbar. On the top line of the header box (on any page), right-justify and type the header followed by 5 spaces. Then, in the toolbar, click the first box to the left with a number sign (#). Then click “Close” on the toolbar.

Your headers then will automatically format as you type!

References
References follow APA format (indenting first line, author, date, title of article or chapter, title of journal or book, volume, page numbers, with proper underlinings).

Create your list of references on its own page after the last page of your text. Center the title References one inch from the top of the page. Double space. Alphabetize the list of references by the last name of the authors. If the work has no author or editor, alphabetize the work by the first word of the title (excluding A, An, or The).

Remember, every source listed here should be in the body of your paper and vice versa!