Apli 610

extensive reading 1
refers to the reading of large numbers of texts chosen by the learners where there are  5% or less of unknown words. It should be a pleasurable activity. Its characteristics are on page 219 

vocabulary from extensive reading is very fragile. .

intensive reading
close and delibirate reading
hu and nation findings for threshold
98% coverage for adequate comprehension 

        There is a predictable relation (linear one)    between text coverage and comprehension

graded readers
books written for non native speakers (almost contain 1 to 2k level)Graded readers cover until 3k level.-develop reading fluencypromotes vocabulary growth through repetetive encounters.
What contributes to learners’ comprehension of an L2 text?

  L2 vocabulary size and L1 vocabulary size.

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6in; vertical-align: baseline; language: en-CA; mso-line-break-override: none; punctuation-wrap: hanging;”>Grammar knowledge

Previous experience with texts and their structure
Topic/content knowledge
Reading strategies
Language distance between L1 and L2

Laufer and (2010) Threshold

Two thresholds
1- Optimal: 98% coverage which requires 8000 families
2- Minimal: 95% coverage which requires 4000-5000
Note: Bernhard rejects threshold idea

Text register

    Text register affects the type of vocabulary that occurs.

3in; word-break: normal; language: en-CA; mso-line-break-override: none; punctuation-wrap: hanging;”>    Learners should read over a range of registers

Readability of the text
reading material should be at the right level a minimum of 10 repetitions of a word is needed for learning to occur. extensive reading or listening leads to successful vocabulary learning
Narrow reading

?It involves reading within a very narrow defined topic area.
?Vocabulary are related to only one topic area.
?Vocabulary load is substantially reduced.
?Narrow reading is suitable for increasing the amount of background knowledge and motivation for those who are interested in the topic.


Negotiation of the meaning of the text through discussion and paired reading where learners help each other when help is needed

?A gloss is a brief definition or a synonym either in L1 or L2
?It is used to: 1- allow learners to read difficult texts.

                         2- provide accurate meanings for words.                         3- provide minimal interruption of the                                reading process.

                         4- draw attention to words which might                                encourage learning

How to use Glosses?

?Use L1 glosses for learners with vocabulary of less than 2,000 words. For more advanced learners, either L1 or L2 glosses are fine.

?Use simple glosses because they are easier to make and they are less disruptive than multiple-choice glosses
?Use glosses that draw on the underlying core meaning of the word.
?  glosses.
?Don’t signal hyperlink glosses

Replace the low-freq. words and gloss the mid-

Unsimplified texts written for young native speakers
providing repetetive words with supportive illustrations are good compensatory strategy to make non-native speakers read unsimplified texts.
Laufer and Ravenhorst-Kalovsky(2010)
Lexical threshold revisited: Lexical text coverage, learners’ vocabulary size and reading comprehension
Simplified texts

Learners need to keep on reading a lot (to meet and meet again)
Get reinforcement via direct vocabulary teaching
To be effective, learners need to read 1 or 2 readers per week

extensive reading 2
it showed a strong relationship between reading for pleasure and high proficiency levels.


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