Applied Behavior Analysis

A-B design
A two-phase experimental design consisting of a pre treatment baseline condition (A) followed by a treatment condition (B)
   affirmation of the consequent
A three step form of reasoning that begins with a true antecedent-consequent (if A – then B) statement and proceeds as follows:1) If A is true, then B is true2) B is found to be true3) therefore, A is true 
ascending baseline
A data path that shows an increasing trend in the response measure over time
A condition of an experiment in which the independent variable is not present; data obtained during baseline are the basis for determining the effect of the independent variable
baseline logic
A term sometimes used to refer to the experimental reasoning inherent in single-subject experimental designs; entails 3 elements: prediction, vrification, and replication
confounding variable
An uncontrolled factor known or suspected to exert influence on the dependent variable
dependent variable 
The target behavior or measurable dimensional quantity of that behavior (rate,duration) *Behavior is dependent on the independent variable
descending baseline
A data path that shows a decreasing trend in the response measure over time.
experimental control
 The outcome of an experiment that demonstrates convincingly a functional relation, meaning that experintal control is acheived when a predictable change in behavior (dependent variable) can be reliably produced by manipulating a specific aspect of the environment(independent variable).
experimental design
The particular type and sequence of conditions in a study so that meaningful comparisons of the effects of the presence and absence (or different values) of the independent variable can be made.
experimental question
A statement of what the researcher seeks to learn by conducting the experiment(research question)
external validity
The degree to which a study’s findings have generality to other subjects, settings, and/or behaviors.

extraneous validity
Any aspect of the experimental setting (lighting,temp) that must be held constant to prevent unplanned environmental variation.
independent variable
The particular aspect of the environment that the experimenter manipulates to find out whether it affects the subjects behavior.(intervention,treatment,experimental variable)
internal validity
Experiment shows convincingly that changes in behavior are a function of the independent variable and not as a;result of uncontrolled/unknown variables.
parametric analysis
An experiment designed to discover the differiental effects of a range of values of an independent variable (ex. comparing the effects of several tratment plans)
practice effects
Improvements in performance resulting from opportunities to perform a behavior repeatedly so that baseline measures can be obtained.(confounds a study and baseline should be continued until steady state.


A statement of the anticipated outcome of a presently unknown or future measureOne of the 3 components of experimental reasoning (+ replication,verification)
Repeating conditions within an experiment to determine the reliability of effects and increase internal validity(+prediction,verification)
single-subject deigns
Repeated measures of the subject’s behavior are obtained as she/he are exposed to each condition. The participant is theirown control(within-subject design)
stable baseline
Data that shows no evidence of an upward or downward trend (w/i a small range)
steady state responding
A pattern of responding that exhibits relatively little variation in its measured dimensional quantities over a period of time.
steady state strategies
Repeatedly exposing a subject to a given condition while trying to eliminate or control extraneous influences on the behavior and obtaining a stable pattern of responding before introducing the next condition
variable baseline
Data points that do not consistently fall within a range of values and do not suggest any clear trend
Demonstrating that the prior level of baseline responding would have remained unchanged had the independent variable not been introduced(+prediction,replication)