Archaeological Dating Methods

Wood structures found (homes), pillar, boat (maritime features), ornaments, inscriptions in wood, furniture Pollen Analysis Useful in bogs and marshes, where pollen grains are taken from a layer of the bog then examined by microscopes Wood products, plants/flowers, animals, crops (types of food), human remains Stratification When the archaeologists records to occupational sequence of a site, by giving a relative date to each layer of the site and the objects deposited within it

Allows for comparisons to other areas, does not decay, make connections with advancements, facilitates relative dating Typology Groups of artifacts e. G. Pottery, tools, weapons can be arranged from the earliest to latest according to style, materials used, techniques used e. G. Ethos of metal work on swords or types of clay or pigmentation used Examining development over time Radio Carbon Dating Radiocarbon can date organic material between 50, 000 and 400 years old All living things absorb carbon At death the Carbon- 14 it has absorbed in its life is “frozen” Human remains, insinuators, bones, plant material that has not decomposed, fossils, diseases within organic materials This begins to decay at a known and constant date Scientists can measure the radioactive emissions from a sample Of the organism to calculate when it died.

Useful from dating parchment, hair, birds egg, bone, leather, lake mud, sediment, soil, resins, peat, etc AMASS Radio carbon dating-since the sass-can date back 70,000 years, need smaller samples, more accurate Thermo luminescence (TTL) Another form of radio carbon dating but can date pottery and other inorganic eternal over 50,000 years old Used to date artifacts from sites where radio- carbon fating cannot be done Heating sample of an object to SOC causes flash of light (luminescence) which scientist measure along with radioactive content of sample.

CRUX (X-Ray Fluorescence) Measures metallic content within objects without damaging them Each metal produces a unique set of energy levels when X-rayed and these are displayed on graph DNA DNA is the blueprint Of all living things Shows all characteristics of the organism Scientists can extract DNA from preserved tissue, bone, teeth, etc.