Assessment

Reliability
-how consistent a test is
-No test is perfectly consistent but can use coefficients to determine reliability
-between .80-.95
Validity
-Does the test give good information that it says it is testing.
-Is it a good test?
-is there evidence to support the interpretation of the test
-what is the nature of the strengths of the interpretation
Stages of client readiness
-Precontemplative stage: not aware of problem with no plans to change behavior (usually there because someone asked)

-Contemplative Stage: aware of problem with no decisions on how to act

-Preparation stage: begun to make small changes with intentions on making more within next month.

-Action Stage: successfully change behavior for short periods of time.

-Maintenance stage: If changes last for longer than 6 months; attitude behaviors have occurred

*some clients will cycle through stages a couple of times before long term changes

Intake interview/form
-assess nature of client problem
-lets counselor have a look at problems before exploring in depth
-Topics:appearance, behavior, history, functioning at work/social, alcohol, drugs, abuse, risk at harming self/others, previous counseling, attitude towards counseling
-help get an idea about what is needed and how urgent it is

Examples:
-Mental Status Exam(MSE): current level of functioning
-Symptoms Check list

Individual Versus Group tests
-Depends on what the test was designed for(indv. or group)
-group allows big group test within a short period of time w/little cost

-Individual test allow examiner to adapt to client needs
-Can examine nonverbal behavior, language proficiency, and cooperation
-Certain populations need individual: children and handicapped

Intelligence tests
-thoroughly studied fields
-Stanford-Binet IQ test: ratio between mental age and real age
-gold standard test
-Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale(4 scales for age range)
-CogAT: school IQ test given in group setting

Interpretation:
-Howard Gardner proposed multiple intelligences
-should interpret as how they scored compared to peers. (top 12 percent)
-Giftedness, creativity: Torrance test of creativity

Crystallized and fluid intelligence
-Crystallized: individual’s ability to solve problems and make decisions based on acquired knowledge/experience
-fluid intel: ability to be adaptable and flexible in problem solving.
Aptitude Tests
-ability to learn or acquire knowledge
-used for the selection of students into higher ed.

Examples:
SAT:measure developed abilities/intel skills (math/language)

ACT: improve prediction of college success over GPAs and HS ranks

Achievement Tests
-assess what learning has taken place

Examples:
-School achievement tests(Iowa, SAT, ect.)
-scores are compared to ranges and grade equivalents
-sometimes misused to evaluate curriculum(high-stakes testing)

Career Assessment
-help clients with the process of making educational and career choices
-Career beliefs refer to client assumptions about choice and development
-test help client better understand position and modify behaviors
Examples:
Career Beliefs Inventory:Identify beliefs that could be blocking from career planning

My vocational situation: inventory for decision making on 3 factors (vocational identity, lack of info, environmental obstacles)

Career Decision Making Difficulties Questionnaire(CDDQ)
-assess student’s ability to cope with difficulties in deciding on a career.

O*NET: tool for career exploration; examine work values

Personality Inventory
-assess personal, emotional, and social traits/behaviors
-client rates items that are descriptive of themselves
Examples:
Myers-Briggs type indicator: Most widely used
-4 dimensions of personality
-used for couples, relationships, vocation, help to work on certain behaviors

16 personality factor Questionnaire: college students for personality inventory
-good prediction of academic grades, profiles, and occupations
assess everyday personality traits

NEO personality:measures the big five personality factors

Interpersonal relationship assessments
-used for couples, and family counseling
Examples:
Genograms: family structure on 3 family generations
-repetitive patters of function, can help alter behavior
DSM-IV axis
Axis I: clinical disorders (mood, anxiety, etc.)

Axis II:Personality disorders and mental retardation

Axis III:General Medical Conditions

Axis IV: Psychosocial and Environmental problems

Axis V: Global Assessment of functioning

Suicide Risk Assessment
-be ready to evaluate risk of suicide
-Ask clients directly about suicidal thoughts
-Assess risk level after IDEATION has been expressed.
-Plan: How lethal , ability of means(do they have the stuff), how detailed is the plan?
-explore the client’s willingness to live, extreme risk, and how immediate intervention can happen,

Symptoms: ideation for 2 or more weeks, leep problems, worthless, guilt, depressed, hopeless(big one), alcohol/drugs
Environmental stress: divorce, job, sickness, academic failure

Suicide Assessment Checklist(SAC)
-12 items based on client’s plan
-high scores=high risk

Guidelines for communicating test results
-know and understand test material
-clients will be nervous
-review purpose with client
-explain procedure
-present as a way of probability(example: chance of…)
-should try to increase client understanding
-examine any disabilities
-examine strength and weaknesses
-make sure client understands
Measure of central tendency
Mean=average of the scores

Median=middle score; 50% above and below

Mode=score that appears the most

*results of central tendency indicate the magnitude and direction

Variability
-how the scores differ from each other

-Range: highest minus the lowest score(distance of scores)
-Standard Deviation: shows distribution around the mean
-shows reliability of a test score
-shows significance of a test
-shows the distribution of the scores
*68 percent of scores lie within one st. deviation above and below
*24 percent lie above or below the 2nd st. deviation

Correlation and error
-degree that two measures are related

Error: amount of variation that can be expected for the score and how unreliable the test is

Ethical issues
-Use tests based on ethical standards
-provide rights that should be respected during testing
-Use appraisal instruments based on competence of counselor
-recognize limits of knowledge and training
-Level A(anyone,iowa) Level B(masters,MBTI) Level C(doctoral, MMPI)
Client Welfare Issues
-data kept private
-results communicated descriptively than numerically
-test results can go to parents for minors
-test should be used should be appropriate
-ethical use in research: informed consent(can choose to participate)
-tests results are used inappropriately
-tests can help them understand themselves
Assessment of Alcohol use
Criteria for dependence:
-need inc. amounts
-withdrawal symptoms effect day
-needing larger amounts for longer period
-reduced social time and increased time trying to acquire substance
-continued use despite physical problems

Assessment should focus on: ability to control drinking, problems associated with drinking
Tests: Rap;id alcohol problem screen(RAPS); Addiction Severity Index-assess impact of client’s use

Depression tests
-Beck Depression Inventoy
-Children’s depression inventory
ADHD
-ADHD rating scale
-Barkley Screening Checklist for ADHD-focus on symptoms