Assessment in Early Childhood- Final

achievement tests
designed to measure what children have learned in school in general or in a specific area. Items from these tests are chose to be a representative sample of the knowledge that should have been learned at that grade.
aptitude tests
intended to predict future performance or success in a given area of training or in an occupation. Often used for program place, IQ tests, etc…
norm-referenced tests
child’s score is compared with the average scores of the population used to design the test.
criterion-referenced tests
comparison of a student’s level of performance to a preestablished level of mastery
bell(normal) curve
normal distribution in the statistical analysis of test scores, the normal curve is a conceptualization of the distribution of scores in a specific pattern that looks like a bell or a hump. The majority of scores are clustered around the mean with fewer scores at either extreme.
“high-stakes” assessment
any assessment that has the potential to influence educational opportunities for children, such as placement in special programs, ability group, or retention in grade.
-makes life-changing decisions for students, high-stakes for teachers, too.
mean
average score
median
score in the exact middle of the distribution
mode
most commonly occurring score
percentile rank
describes where a person stands relative to the norm used to develop the test
grade equivalent
how some achievement test scores are presented. A child in 1st grade that scores a 3.6(3rd grade, 6th month) does not necessarily read at the 3rd grade level. It only means that they scored as well as children half-way through 3rd grade would on the 1st grade test of reading achievement
diagnostic assessment
an in-depth appraisal of an individual child by a specialist, frequently performed after a child has been identified by a screening process or a teacher
standardized tests
tests with specific characteristics:
1) developed according to APA/AERA guidelines with high levels of reliability and validity
2) prescribed methods for administration and security
3)scoring systems based on comparisons with other people or to a specified criterion
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of standardized testing
Advantages:
-enables comparability among students, schools, states, nations, etc…
-reliable
-good tool to find out where a student is developmentally
-measures how well a curriculum is working
-more efficient
-results are easier for public to understand

Disadvantages:
-overuse of scores
-misuse of scores
-only a snapshot of student ability/progress
-can be unsuitable for population

Interpret standardized test score reports for an individual child or a classroom in order to explain the results to parents and in order to plan for future teaching
-lexiles to rank students
-use scores to make plans according to how many questions total were answered correctly throughout the whole class
-pay attention to percentiles and grade equivalency
Be able to construct a performance task to measure a given standard.
Student Created Assessment Posters
-focus on standard
-tell what you want the student to do in a child-friendly manner
-explain how to grade it(rubric, checklist)
Explain how to use assessment information in formative ways to prepare for day-to-day work in the classroom
First off, identify what mastery looks like. Then use that to check student understanding, measure student growth and development, plan for student needs, and finally modify instruction and curriculum. If a student does not master a concept in the time you planned for, you can use the assessment information to pin-point the problem area and work with the student individually. Also, if a class shows mastery of a concept in an assessment earlier than you expected, you can alter your day-to-day plan to move forward in the curriculum.
Be able to prepare to share all kinds of assessment information with parents
PARENT CONFERENCES!!:
-Have a plan- come up with one or two desired outcomes from the conference. Write down ideas for positive and personal start to the meeting. List points you want to make, including examples or evidence to back up points. Note possible actions that can be taken to sustain or enhance learning. Be sure to get parent to respond.
-Be sensitive- Arrange for a translator if needed. Be understanding of family situations.
-Communicate WITH the parents, not at them- Treat them as an equal, make sure they know you realize they know their child best.
-Give parents a written record of student progress.
-Be specific- avoid generalizations.
-Keep language clear and simple- speak in terms that everyone can understand. Do not use labels. Focus on what the child does, and offer plenty of explanation as to why something is important.
-Be selective- You will have to choose a very limited number of samples from a wide collection of student work, requiring you to summarize.
-Be clear, straightforward, and supportive- Do not gloss over problems, but do not forget to focus on strengths as well as weaknesses.
-Be prepared to answer parents’ questions- If parent asks how their child compares to the rest of the class, be prepared to compare them to a hypothetical, “average” child of their age. Do NOT compare them to their classmates. Be ready to explain and demonstrate how their child is growing in school and parent goals.
-Use assessment results as a basis for home activities- Inform the parent as to how they can help their child at home.
-Look ahead- Together, with the parent, decide on a “home-school action plan” to encourage progress and work on an concerns.

PORTFOLIO CONFERENCES!!!
-Student led
-Teacher led

-be sure to prepare the portfolio for sharing.
-let the parents study the portfolio on their own.

EXHIBITS/DISPLAYS!!!
-need to be in a public place(school hallway, lobby, library, shopping malls)
-Open houses, receptions, parent meetings, parent-teacher conferences and other functions are great opportunities for interested people to study exhibits.
-Websites