Assessments – Cloward

SD=3, xbar(mean)= 15, Avg.Rng. 13-17
SD=10, xbar(mean)=50
The Standard Score
SD = 15, xbar(mean)=100
Scaled Score
SD=3 xbar(mean)=10, Avg.Rng. 8-12
How do you get z?
(x-xbar)/SD = Z
How do you get x (for each standard score graph, in order to compare scores)
z(SD) + xbar = x
items on test vs. theory
Content Validity
The test content covers what it should – items on test vs. curriculum.

Criterion Validity
How a test correlates with another test – must be data proved/driven
Three types of Reliability
Inter RaterStabilityInternal Consistency
Inter Rater
the degree of agreement among raters. It gives a score of how much homogeneity, or consensus, there is in the ratings given by judges.
reliability over TIME, today, tomorrow, and the next day
Parallel Forms, Alternate Forms
SAME THING: Same test, different questions, pulled from a bank..

. 🙂

True Score – Original Score =
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills, 2-3 years, social language, sound fluent
Cognitive-Academic Language Proficiency, 5-7 years to develop, academic language
Hobson Case
court declared that a district’s tracking system was invalid. Kids could go to a special class but only if the testing procedures were rigorous and retesting was frequent
Norm Group
a large number of children who are representative of all the children in that age group
SD v1-rxx
Confidence Interval =
Where your range will fall, Obtained score +/- SEM
Error =
True score – obtained score
Access Skill
skills you need in order to take a test – i.e.

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you need reading skills to take a math test which has story problems…

Target skill
the skill you are trying to measure – i.e.

reading for a reading test

Diana vs. Board of Education (1970)
Mandated to correct bias in assessment procedures used with Chinese American and Mexican American students – Eliminate the cultural bias
Guadalupe vs. Tempe Elementary School (1972)
children can not be placed in educable mentally retarded classes unless they score lower than 2 standard deviations below the pop. mean on an approved IQ test administered in the child’s own language
Larry P. vs. Riles (1979)
California found that using IQ tests as the assessment measure for placing African American students in special education as mentally retarded was found to be discriminatory
Parents in Action on Special Education (PASE) v.

Hannon (1980)

found that use of intelligence tests was acceptable in psychoeducational assessment as long as they followed all other procedural safeguards under federal law.
What is descriptive statistics?
the discipline of quantitatively describing the main features of a collection of information, or the quantitative description itself. Mean, Median, Mode, Standard Deviation, Variance
Calculate the z score for 84%
1 – yes, z-scores are going to usually be between 4 and -4
Practice effect
a puzzle that you did five minutes ago you might be able to do better but only because you just did it.

Maturational Learning
you actually learn it, you take it in
two types of standardized tests
norm referenced and criterion
reliability (slope on a graph)
Ratio Data
Zero means zero
Equal Interval
zero has been assigned to a point, z scores, etc.
Nominal Data
any classification that you can’t do math with, can’t organize them.
(xbar – x)/ SD
Convert X(SS) = 100 to X(t) =
Percentages on percentile rank.


less than one, 2, 14, 34 – add them up and you’ll get 50%
Informal Test
not as stressful, allows for creativity, performance and skills: not as data driven…
What type of data is farenheit?
Equal Interval
NARNA (steps to testing an ELL)
N – Native LanguageA – Assistance (outside)R – Refer (someone who can)N – Non VerbalA – Authentic
Access part, you give them an interpreter or something
the test is changed or they use a completely different test.


trigger (before behavior)
time between antecedent and behavior
contrived vs.
naturalistic observation
obtrusive vs.
Systematic Observation
using the grid he showed us in class, over time, multiple settings, objective,
Due Process
When laws are broken, going to court, mediation, etc.
Procedural safeguards
stuff put in place so that laws are actually followed..

. consent forms etc.

IFSP’s are a part of
Public Law 99-457
Validity is boss
all other technical considerations are only really smaller parts of validity.
504 Plan
More related to access, provides wheelchairs and so forth
IEP Plan
This pertains to a child- who needs to qualify for special education – actually affects his education
is an IEP for little children, ages 0-3
Public Law 94-142.

Came BEFORE IDEA, school age children, to provide special education for them, before public law 94-142 most of the arguments were about assessments, but with 94-142 they started to talk about how to help special ed kids…i think?
0-3, preschool laws
Do true scores effect reliability?
True score does not effect the reliability because we don’t even know what it is… ha.
Halo effects
when children are treated like angels.

.. because you view them that way 🙂

Free and appropriate education and helped kids with mental retardation

stands for

Local Educational Agency… aka the school board
The district doesn’t always know it’s stuff…therefore
take responsibility for yourself
Criterion referenced tests have less stability than norm referenced tests…true or false
How long are test norms good for?
up to 8 years
Is related to dispersion