Atherosclerosis is one of the key factors that contribute to Ischemic Heart Disease. It is the hardening and narrowing of the inner arterial walls of the arteries, which hinders the flow of blood to the body.
According to Beckerman, J (2016), arteries are lined by endothelium, which is a thin layer of cells that acts as a barrier among the lumen and the encompassing tissues that control the motion of white blood cells, inside and outside of the bloodstream. Atherosclerosis develops with the harm executed to the endothelium. this is because of excessive blood pressure, smoking, or high cholesterol. This leads to plague formation within the arteries.
When bad cholesterol – also called ‘Low-Density Lipoprotein’ (LDL), encounters the endothelium that is damaged, the cholesterol will enter the walls of the arteries. Subsequently, plague forms and grows as atherosclerosis advances, narrowing the passage of blood flow (Beckerman, 2016). While the plague is huge enough, it may create a blockage, now not allowing the blood to flow at some stage in the body. This may not only endanger the coronary heart attack, and other health issues (Beckerman, 2016).
Signs and symptoms of atherosclerosis do not commonly display till middle age or older. However, because the passage of blood flow continues to seriously narrow, it could hinder blood flow and cause pain. It is also viable for the plague to suddenly rupture, and cause the blood to clot on the site of the rupture in an artery (Beckerman, 2016).
In ischemic heart disease, the plagues inside the arteries of the heart cause angina (chest ache). An unexpected rupture of the plague and clotting of the blood, cause heart muscle to die, this is called a heart attack.
Atherosclerosis can get worse over time; however, it is preventable. Once there is a blockage, it will commonly stay for life. However, plagues could stop or slow their growth. With vigorous treatment, they might even reduce a little. Lessening the threating components will slow or even stop the process. This means that there is a need of change in a way of life (Beckerman, 2016). This includes a healthy diet, exercise, and no smoking. These changes will not eliminate the blockages, but they have demonstrated to decrease the risks of heart attacks.
Taking medication for high cholesterol and excessive blood pressure will slow and could even halt atherosclerosis (Beckerman, 2016). This is additionally one of the approaches that decrease the risks of heart attacks. Other than medication, medical doctors could use invasive strategies to go around or open the blockages from atherosclerosis.
One method will be the angiography and stenting. A thin tube will be inserted into an artery within the arm or the leg, permitting the doctors to get to the affected arteries and see the blockages via an X-ray display screen. Blocked arteries can frequently be opened through angioplasty – catheters with balloon tips and stenting (Beckerman, 2016). Stenting helps to reduce the signs and symptoms of atherosclerosis, but it cannot prevent future heart attacks (Beckerman, 2016).
Another technique is – bypass surgery. Surgeons will take a healthy blood vessel, often from the leg or chest. They will use the healthy blood vessel to replace those which are damaged (Beckerman, 2016). This method may have complications along with – kidney failure and stroke (Beckerman, 2016). Therefore, it is only carried out whilst the blockage is too critical to be managed with medication or other treatments.