It is interesting to note the view of what is essentially atypical behavior, and what classes as a psychological disorder, and how it has evolved through the ages. In the times Of our ancient cultures, such as that Of the ancient Greeks, Egyptians and the Hebrews; it was believed that when someone expressed a behavior that was not deemed the normal, that they were possessed, or it was the workings of angry gods or evil spirits.
It has to be appreciated these were in times where people believed that everything revolved around deities and in some cultures it was believed that many things ere the results of magic, alchemy or religious dam nation; as time has gone on however, and study of the mind has ensued, views have gone far from the superstitious reasoning of our forefathers. (Butcher, N. James, Monika, Susan, Holey, M.
Jill, Abnormal Psychology (1 5th deed) peg 31 Demonology, gods and magic) Every culture throughout the ages has had its norms of society, such as it would have been deemed abnormal for men to wear earrings 50 years ago in our own culture, and now it is an accepted social practice for men, what is typical and what is abnormal changes with societies acceptances and rejections.
A more stark contrast is through similar devices Hitler made the Jews abnormal through his practices in order to justify controlling and silencing them, which eventually led to the holocaust; that’s the power of a focal group on the acceptances of what is deemed normal and abnormal in any given society. (Asks, 1971) The first appose of the abnormal psychological world I am going to look at it phobic disorders which can stem from anxiety disorder, and as an initial am going to be looking at simple phobias as a basis. O begin it is important to draw out that simple phobias re quite non complex as a rule, and a lot less directive of everyday life when compared with agoraphobia or social phobias; which can essentially withhold you from day to day life if they become advanced enough. Phobic disorders are basically irrational fears of a object or thing, situation that is usually quite specific in nature, it is usually something the person knows can cause them no harm, Hoover they will still go out of there way to avoid the said object, or situation at all costs, ion most cases.
ADSM-IV-TRY basically categorizes all phobias as either specific, social or agoraphobic. Arachnophobia is one that cost have heard of, and which is quite common, which is an irrational fear of spiders, there are other simple phobias such as Catastrophic, which is the fear of storms, Anglophobia and xenophobia which is the fear of darks and the latter the fear of the dark; these are specific phobias. N interesting point is that someone that has a phobia like arachnophobia for instance, may just not be able to touch a spider, where as another person with arachnophobia may not be able to even look at a depiction of a spider, so there is a very varied sliding scale on how it a phobia can be tailored based on an individual and ACH persons phobia, even if it is the same can be very diverse The physical symptoms that someone can experience in reaction to a phobia are panic attacks, tachycardia (fast breathing), sweating and trembling, dry mouth, ringing in your ears among many others.
The list is vast. The psychological symptoms are fear of dying, the fear of losing control, a feeling of dread as well as a fear of fainting. (www. NASH. UK 2015 ) If we look at Roseanne and salesman’s’ theory that certain phobias may actually occur and develop due to our base instincts that date back to a time n our ancestral past where we had need to fear and feel endangered by certain creatures that Were highly dangerous or poisonous.
Its a basis of genetic memory on our earliest experiences with those creatures , so they basically propose that we may be genetically hardwired to fear certain animals via our phobic responses as an almost genetic defense that now manifests as an irrational phobia What this could lead us to believe is that it is implied that some phobias are manifested at a base level in the human genetic code, an almost learnt behavior that carries down through generations; just one theory among many.
Roseanne and salesman 1 984)( Gross et, al 2000) (workman and reader 2008) Moving along from simple phobias we have agoraphobia which is a phobia that accounts for about 60 percent Of all patients who suffer with phobic disorders; it occurs mostly in women, where as other phobias are more equal between the genders. This is classified as a more complex phobia, and these usually break down to the aforementioned agoraphobia and social phobia.
Primarily agoraphobia is categorized as the fear of open spaces, but the main phobia centers on the fear of leaving ones home and familiar rounding’s or in some cases companions/partner. On a secondary basis it can also be a fear of being in certain public places, but the former is more depict of the condition. Phobias, if untreated can lead into other more complex psychological disorders . (Gross, Richard. 2012) Gross guides to psychology peg 700 Phobic disorders) Agoraphobia is more complex by nature as it generalissimos more then one phobia interlinked with another or a few others in some cases. Commonly phobias like monophonic and claustrophobia can be be found within someone agoraphobia, whilst seeming intonating when you look at the fact one is a fear of being alone, and the other is a phobia of being in confined spaces, its interesting to note the base part of the agoraphobia can then make the person feel like they cannot leave there homely space.
The severity of symptoms can vary with people who suffer the aforementioned, it can cause anxiety and apprehensiveness before having to leave there home to go somewhere that is maybe not far away such as the local shops, where as someone without the condition may feel little to no discomfort performing what most would consider quite an ordinary day to ay task. Social phobia is not that different to agoraphobia as most who suffer with it have the same symptomatic of not wanting to leave there home; this is usually in extreme cases of social phobia, however main symptoms bring with it social awkwardness.
A social phobic person may avoid certain social situations and may avoid groups or certain places that have a high volume of people or specific people or places. (www. NASH. UK 2015 ) eke any of the previously discussed, in most if not all, anxiety is the main symptom, and that is why they fall under an anxiety disorder, even if they can resent similarly to many other disorders. The Symptom of anxiety crops up when the individual tries to control there maladaptive behavior, and as a consequence feels extreme anxiety. Room the words of people who have actually suffered such maladaptive behaviors in response to there given anxiety disorder we have feelings contently feeling under strain, even when there is no direct catalyst, always dreading something, getting instant spells of nausea and fatigue and becoming immediately scared for no good reason, and becoming conscious of your heart beating too fast and even becoming tottered by this symptom. (Hoecakes, N. Et al. Atkinson and halyards introduction to psychology 1 5th edition peg 543 ) Looking at Freud case with little Hans, a study he did to support his child development theories.
We can see a interesting phobia form from what is known as the Odysseus complex, which is basically that upon developing a strong sexual connection to his mother, Hans saw his father as a rival and projected this into a phobia of horses, the horse was a representation for his repressed feelings for his father, down the The depiction of the horse, the lack bits around the horses face reminded the boy of his fathers moustache for example. Most what Freud tried establish in this is supported by the fact that Hans fantasized about being married to his mother.
Although a compelling and complex study it suffers the weakness of not being a wide enough study as it is an individual case, and no further study was done to support its validity. There is also no way to know how typical the boy was as he is not otherwise described as abnormal. And evidence leads us to think Freud may have only met the boy once as most of the study is respondent via letter, with the father, so the control is very loose. Freud could only really base his study on the fathers take on the boys symptoms and therefore is not a direct way of gauging the symptoms displayed by Hans. F we look at it from another stand point, another psychoanalyst known as Bowl, said that it could have been that Hans saw a horse collapse in the street as said in the collected information, and that this could be the boy correlating this happening when he saw other horses, a case of classical conditioning. And Bowl also believed that the issues mostly arose from the others threats of abandonment and the previous threats that if he touched his genitalia that she would have the doctor come and remove it.
So we could be looking at Freud being even marginally biased as he was leaning his research on the case to his other research on traumatic sexual encounters and the Odysseus complex in boys; as he believed that if a bond through the farther was not allowed to properly take place, then the boy was more then likely to become homosexual, Freud believed all boys must experience this stage, which may have added a bias to his research altogether.