Basic anatomy and Physiology

Exam one Study Guide: Basic Anatomy and Physiology Anatomy- the study of structure Subdivisions: -Gross (macroscopic) – visible to the naked eye, such as surface area, regional areas or anatomy systems -Microscopic – extremely small areas that usually need a microscope to be seen such as cytology (the study of the shape and function of plant or animal cells) or histology ( the study of the microscopic structure of tissue) – Developmental- compared to the evolutional study of something such as embryology ( the study of the development of an embryo) Physiology- the study of function at many different levels

I. E. Such as the organ systems -Is based on where an organ is placed within the body *Anatomy and physiology are inseparable; one cannot function without the other. Function and structure affect each other simultaneously.

Different levels of structures -Chemical: atoms and molecules -Cellular: cells and their organelles -Tissue: groups of similar cells -Organs: contains 2 or more types of tissues -Organ Systems: organs work closely together -Organisms: all organ systems Integument Systems (hair, skin, nails) -Creates the external covering and protection of the deeper tissue in the body – Houses receptors for pain, pressure, and sweat and oil glands Skeletal System (bones, Joints) -Protects and supports the body organs and provides the framework for the body. Also store important minerals -Produces heat -Allows for locomotion, facial expression, and manipulation, and helps maintain posture Nervous Muscles ( brain, nerves, and spinal cord) -Fast acting control system -Our body ability to respond to internal/external stimuli and properly adjust by activating muscles and glands (perspiration) Endocrine System (thyroid gland, ovary, testis, pituitary glands, thymus, pineal gland, adrenal gland, pancreas) -Glands that secrete hormones that regulate out processes such as metabolism, growth , and reproduction Cardiovascular System (heart, blood vessels) -Blood vessels transport blood, that carries oxygen carbon dioxide, nutrients, and wastes throughout the body -The heart pumps the blood Lymphatic System (spleen, thymus, thoracic duct, red bone marrow, lymph nodes) – Collects any fluids that are leaked from the blood vessels and returns them to the blood -Discards and debris such as bacteria -Houses the white blood cells -Is the military base for the immune response team and attacks any foreign enemies f the body Respiratory System (bronchus, lungs, trachea, larynx, pharynx, nasal) -Removes the carbon dioxide taken in while breathing and keeps the blood stocked with oxygen Digestion System (mouth, intestines, liver, rectum, anus, and esophagi) -Consumes and breaks down the foods and nutrients that our bodies take in, in order for it to be in observable units that can be taken in the blood -Disposes of any unneeded substances consumed Urinary System (kidneys, router, bladder, urethra) This system is used to regulate the acid/ base balance of the blood, water in the body, and electrolytes. Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body Necessary life Functions – Growth -Reproduction -Responsiveness -Internal/ external boundaries -Digestion -Excretion -Metabolism Survival needs -Water -Nutrients -Oxygen -Maintaining a normal body temperature -Appropriate atmospheric pressure Homeostasis Is when the body has to keep a stable internal environment even when there are changes that occur outside of the body Imbalance: – Disease – Aging – Destructive Mechanisms: Heart Failure and Blood clots. Body Orientation: Anatomical Position: Body is Erect, feet slightly apart and palms are facing forward.

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Directions: – Ventral: Toward font of the body – Dorsal: Toward back of the body – Superior: Toward upper part of the body – Inferior: Toward the lower part of the body – Medial: Toward middle of the body – Lateral: Away from the middle of the body – Intermediate: Between the middle and outer part of the body the body (trunk) – Distal: Away from the body (trunk) – Superficial: Toward body surface – Deep: Away from body surface Two Major Divisions: – Axial: Head, Neck and Trunk – Ventricular: Limbs (arms/legs) – Both designate Areas of the body Body Planes: – Proximal: Closer to Stagiest: Cut is made right down the middle and is divided into left and right parts – Parasitical: Divides body into left and right planes but is not directly cut down the middle – Frontal: Cuts and divides the body into front and back planes – Transverse: Cut is horizontal at the wait and divided into top and bottom planes Anatomic Variability: – Every person is “unique” – Small muscle may be missing (I. E. Wrist muscle in forearm) – Also some people have extra pieces in their body (I. E. Rivers)- May be asymptomatic (no problems) or symptomatic (problems) one being people having nerve problems Body Cavities: Dorsal: Protects nervous system -Subdivisions: Cranial (brain) & Vertebral (Spinal Cord) -Ventral: Holds internal organs -Subdivisions: Thoracic (ribcage) & Abdominally (Abdomen and pelvis) Serous Membrane: – Double layered membrane that is separated by fluid – Parietal: lines body walls -Visceral: lines internal organs Regions: Nine Regions: – Right Hypochondriac Region: Organs found in this region are Liver and Diaphragm – Epigenetic Region: Organs found in this region are diaphragm, transverse colon & stomach – Left Hypochondriac Region: Organs found in this region are stomach and paragraph -Right lumbar Region: Ascending Colon and small intestine – Umbilical Region: transverse colon and small intestine -Left lumbar Region: transverse and descending colon. -Right Iliac Region: Appendix, Small intestine, ascending colon, right ovary and fallopian tube. -Hypocrites Region: Bladder, uterus, and small intestine – Left Iliac Region: Descending colon and left ovary and fallopian tube.

Quadrants: Four Quadrants: -Right Upper Quadrant: Liver Gallbladder, ascending/transverse colon, stomach and diaphragm -Left Upper Quadrant: Small intestine, stomach, transverse colon, paragraph and liver -Right Lower Quadrant: Appendix, ascending colon, bladder, fallopian tube, uterus and ovary -Left Lower Quadrant: Descending colon, small intestine, bladder, uterus, ovary and fallopian tube Basic Biochemistry: Composition of Matter: Elements: – Can be broken down – Unique properties – Physical: Detectable/Measurable – Chemical: Atoms bonding other atoms In human body: – Lesser elements: Iron, Iodine, Phosphorus, Calcium, Potassium etc. Elements are important because they help with other bodily iron in the blood and calcium in the bone) Energy: Types: – Kinetic: Energy in motion Potential: Energy stored for a later use Forms: – Chemical: stored in bonds within chemical substances – Electrical: Occurs when their movement within charged particles – The lesser functions (I. E. – Mechanical: Moving matter (I. E. When a muscle contracts) Note: Energy must be converted as one form to another but some energy may be lost Enzymes: Biological Catalysts: – Speeds up reaction and lowers activation energy – I. E.

FPC and Myosin TAP Characteristics: – End in “ass” – Functional enzymes consist of proteins, metal ions and vitamins Reverse Enzyme inhibiter: – Competitive: No substrate – Noncompetitive: can change the shape of the active site and can bind to inactive sites Cells, membranes, transport Generalized Cell -Cells have common functions and structure but are not always the same – Human cells have 3 basic parts – Plasma membrane (a protective outer boundary), – Cytoplasm (the fluid inside of the cell containing the organelles), – Nucleus (control center) -The bimolecular layer of lipids and proteins in a constantly changing mosaic -Divides the intracellular fluid (inside the cell) from the Interstitial fluid (fluid that surrounds the cell) -The plasma membrane is made up of mostly phosphoric ( phosphate dads and fatty acid tails), glycoside, and cholesterol Membrane Proteins -Integral proteins (inserted into the membrane) -Most integral proteins are transmigrate -Peripheral proteins (attached to integral proteins) The many functions of Membrane proteins Transport- assisting in the crossing of certain substances Receptors for signal transduction- a protein with a binding site on the outside of the cell with a specific shape that when activated can initiate chemical reactions inside the cell Attachment to cytokines and extracurricular matrix- this helps maintain cell shape and fix the location of certain membrane proteins. Enzymatic activity- Proteins in the membrane can be enzymes with an active site Intracellular Joining- membrane proteins that may Join together at temporary binding site in order to assist in things such as cellular migration.

Cell to cell recognition- the use of globetrotting as identification tags that are recognized by other cells Membrane Junctions: Three types Tight Junction – cells held together tightly (skin) keeping things from getting in or out Decompose – Rivets or spot welds that anchor cells together but allow movement and stretch (epithelial tissue, bladder, intestines) Gap Junction -uses pores that allow ells to share components like ions in cardiac cells (makes them contract all together) Membrane Transport Membranes that allow things to move in and out or through different cells These membranes are selectively permeable meaning that they can allow certain substance to pass through while keeping other out such as pasta through a strainer Passive transport moves substance down the concentration gradient and requires no TAP (energy) Active transport requires TAP and moves against that concentration gradient such as swimming against a strong current A concentration gradient is the difference in amount of particles on either side of a membrane *There are different types of Passive Processes Passive Processes: Simple Diffusion (movement of 02 through phosphoric belayed) the concentration gradient and the size of the particle Passive Processes: Facilitated Diffusion (movement of glucose into cells) Some allophonic molecules act as carrier proteins or channel proteins (tunnels) Carrier proteins transport specific polar molecules, the binding of the substrate causes the proteins to change shape (open and close) allowing the molecules to pass through the membrane Channel proteins use either leakage channels or gated channels to transport ions or water depending n their size Passive Processes: Osmosis (movement of H2O through phosphoric belayed or Asps) Osmosis is the movement of a solvent across a selectively permeable membrane The solvent will diffuse through the lipid belayed or water channels (aspirins) When solutions of different similarity are separated by a membrane, osmosis occurs until equilibrium is reached… If the particles are too large to be moved the water will Why is this important??? When water enters or leaves the cell it causes it shape and function to change When a cell is in an isotonic solution it is a happy cell.

It’s shape and function are normal If cell is in a hypersonic solution (the solution outside of the cell has more solutes) water will leave the cell causing the cell to shrink A hypotonic solution ( more solutes inside the cell) causes water to fill the cell which will make the cell expand and become bloated or even burst Active Processes -Use active transport or vesicular transport that require TAP to move solutes across the plasma membrane -TAP is needed to pump solutes across the concentration gradient by using primary active transport or secondary active transport Active transport uses a sodium- potassium pump that pushes sodium out of the cell and lulls potassium in.

If there was no pump the cell would reach equilibrium due to diffusion and out muscle cells and neurons would not function properly Vesicular also requires TAP and transports larger particles across the plasma membrane Uses Exoticism (transport out of cell , Endometriosis (transport into cell), Transactions (transport into, across, and then out of cell), and Substance (vesicular) trafficking (transport from one area or organelle in cell to another) Endometriosis (entering the cell) Phagocytes engulf solids and transport them into the cell such as macrophages and mom white blood cells (pulls it in from the outside) They are often selective and receptor mediated Ponytails is when the plasma membrane in fold and takes in extracurricular fluid into the cell Receptor -mediated happens with an uptake of enzymes low-density lepidopterist, iron and insulin bind to a specific receptor so the cell takes in these certain substances. Exoticism (leaving the cell) Such as hormone secretion, neurotransmitter release, mucus secretion, and ejection and release the contents out of the cell Generalized Cell: Cytoplasm: – Located between the plasma membrane and nucleus Cytology: water that contains proteins and sugars. Cytoplasm organelles help with protein synthesis – Inclusions are considered the nonliving components of the cell – I. E. Lipid droplets Parts of the cell: – Mitochondria: Double membrane structure that provides cells TAP – Ribosome: Contain protein and RNA and is the main site of protein synthesis – Endoplasmic Reticulum: – Rough: Helps cell membrane synthesizes and secretes proteins – Smooth: Does not synthesize protein but plays an important as an enzyme breakdown in liver and found in intestines) – Googol Apparatus: Packages proteins and lipids Lissome: Contain enzymes that help digest toxins and bacteria and breakdown and release chemicals. (I. E. Glycogen) – Endometrial System: Degrade harmful substances and produce and store molecules.

Cytokines: Series of rods – Misstatements: Involved in cell motility, change in shape and processes such as endometriosis and exoticism – Intermediate Filaments: Attach to decomposes and resist the pulling forces on the cell – Misconstrues: Hollow tubes that determine shape and placement of organelles of the cell – Motor Molecules: Proteins that are powered by TAP and they help move organelles – Centeredness: The area of the cell closet to the nucleus that generates misconstrues Cellular Extensions: – Cilia: Found in fallopian tubes they help move substances across cell surfaces – Flagella: can be found on sperm tails and they make a whip like movement that helps across cell surface – Microvolt: Are finger shaped extensions on the plasma membrane that help in increasing surface area for absorption. It would be found in the small intestine. – Nucleus: The call center for the cell that contain all cellular proteins. Determines when and to be synthesized. How many proteins need – Envelope: Contains pores that regulates what molecules go in and out of clues – Group of cells that are both similar in structure and in function. -Epithelial: – It can be inside or outside of a surface – I. E. Kin (outside) intestines (inside) – Glandular epithelial is tissues that is in the glands – Polar – has two surfaces: apical (upper) which has microvolt or cilia and basal (lower) surface -Vascular (no blood flow) – Introverted (direct nervous control) – Has a high regeneration rate (heals fast) & prevents infection – Is composed of closely packed cell that are held together with tight Junctions Classifications of epithelial: – Summons: its ravioli shaped and is flat Cuboids: It’s cubed shaped – Columnar: Column shaped – Note: It’s named by the apical layer Simple Summons Epithelium: Is flat and has a single layer that has disc shaped nuclei. Help allow passage of material in areas that don’t require a lot of protection. It secretes lubricating substance in serous. Mainly found in kidneys and in air sacs of the lungs.

Also can be found in the ventral cavity of the body (parietal serous) Simple Cuboids Epithelium: Single layer of cube shaped cells with spherical shaped nuclei. It main function is secretion and absorption. Mainly found in kidneys and surface of ovaries. Simple Columnar Epithelium: located on them. Helps with absorption and secretion of mucus and can be ciliated or annunciated. Cells with cilia are located on the fallopian tubes and trachea. Annunciated cells (microvolt) are located on the small intestine and help increase surface area. Stratification Columnar Epithelium: It’s a single layer of cells that have different size cells and have nuclei in different levels. It secretes and moves mucus due to cilia action.

It can be found mainly in the trachea. Stratified Summons Epithelium: Have several thick layers where the apical layer is summons cells and the basal layer s columnar or cuboids. The function is to protect the cells from abrasion and it can be found in the esophagi, mouth vagina. Stratified Cuboids: They are very rare and are found in sweat or mammary glands, and are two cell layers thick. Stratified Columnar: They are limitedly distributed and are located between two types of epithelial. They’re found in the pharynx, male urethra and in some glandular ducts. Transitional Epithelium: Contains stratified summons cells which are located in the apical layer.

Also have cuboids/columnar cells, which are located in the basal layer. Its functions allows for trenching and can be found in the lining of the Reuters, bladder and in the urethra. Glandular Epithelium: Contains two or more cells that secrete aqueous fluids and they can be endocrine or exocrine. Endocrine: Is internally secreted and contains ductless glands. Secretions are released by exoticism and they secrete hormones that travel through lymph and blood to target organs. (Active transport) Exocrine: Have more glands than endocrine glands and they secrete products into ducts. The secretions are released onto body surfaces or their cavities. (Sweat, oil and salivary glands) Unicellular: