Associative bias
louder, stronger, neutral stimulus (NS) are more likely to become conditioned CS.
the NS must be presented BEFORE the UCS for conditioning to take place.
repeated presentation of the CS without the UCS causes the behavior to expire.
Spontaneous recovery
reappearance of the CR after prior extinction.
when learners respond to other stimulus in the same way they respond to conditioned stimulus.
Stimulus discrimination
being able to differentiate between two similar stimulus. (High pitched tone that elicits CR vs low pitch tone=no CR)
Higher order conditioning
Pairing a NS with a CS until the NS also elicits the Conditioned response. (bell=salivate; bell + light=salivate; light = salivate).
Sensory preconditioning
pairing a NS until one elicits a CR, then switching to the other NS and having it elicit the CR.
Characteristics of Extinction
Extinction is undependable and spontaneous recovery can occur. People avoid stimulus they fear; The speed at which extinction occurs is unpredictable.
Counter conditioning
More productive than extinction; spontaneous recovery less likely to occur.
systematic desensitization
exposure to a stress inducing stimulus while being encouraged to relax
Name 4 Behaviorist Assumptions
Practice is important; students should encounter academic subject matter in a positive climate and associate it with positive emotions; to break a bad habit a learner must replace one S-R connection with another S-R that is desirable. Assessing learning involves looking for behavior changes.
Instrumental Conditioning
Behaviorism. Instrumental conditioning says that humans and non-human animals alike tend to behave in ways that bring them desirable consequences and enable them to avoid unpleasant ones.
Thorndike’s Law of Effects
responses that are followed by satisfaction are strengthened; responses that are followed by discomfort are weakened. (Cat in a box/maze discovers how to escape more and more quickly).
Thorndike’s Revised Law of Effects
continues to maintain that rewards strengthen behavior, but placed less emphasis on the role/effects of punishment.
B.F. Skinner
Best known behaviorist scientist. Skinner Box & Operant Conditioning.
Operant Conditioning
Organisms acquire behaviors that are followed by certain consequences.
Skinner Box
rats press a bar to get food.A response that is followed by a reinforcer is strengthened and is therefore more likely to reoccur.
Operant conditioning (continuted)
Responses that are reinforced increase in frequency and are therefore more likely to occur. Reinforcement can bring about learning.. A re-inforcer= a stimulus/event that increases the frequency of a response.
Transactional generality
any single reinforcer is likely to increase many different behaviors in many different situations.
3 Conditions for Operant Conditioning
The re-inforcer must FOLLOW the response; the re-inforcer must follow the response IMMEDIATELY; the reinforcer must be CONTINGENT on the response.(response is FOLLOWED IMMEDIATELY upon the elicitation of the REQUIRED behavior).
Contrast Operant Conditioning with Classical Conditioning
Operant conditioning occurs when a response is FOLLOWED by a reinforcing stimulus. NOT S-R, rather R-Srf.
Primary reinforcer
These are biologically based; food, air, water, physical affection, sensory fullfillment.
Secondary Reinforcer
A conditioned reinforcer, usually through social conditions. They are; good grades, praise, money, feeling successful.
Positive reinforcment
Presentation of a stimulus AFTER a response.
Negative Reinforcement
Removal of a stimulus that results in increased response. removal of an aversive stimulus. (Cake or Death?)
involves the presentation of an aversive stimulus
Punishment 1
Presentation of an aversive stimulus.
Punishment 2
Removal of a pleasant stimulus.
4 Common Phenomenon in Instrumental Conditioning
*superstitious behavior= lucky sweather, etc. *shaping = using reinforcement to shape a behavior. *chaining= teaching a chain of responses by reinforcing the first, then subsequent behaviors until a process behavior is conditioned. *Extinction= a response decreases in frequency because it no longer get reinforced.
Avoidance learning
learning to stay away from aversive stimulus. (missing meetings by using excuses)
Passive avoidance learning
Not making a response to avoid uncomfortable situations (not taking a math class or dr. apt.)
Avoidance behaviors characteristic
Avoidance behaviors are difficult to extinguish. Better to never let them develop.
Cueing stimulus
Getting organisms ready to respond to a stimulus; It is a preperatory cue for a behavior to occur.
Generalization response
occurs when a response is elicited in a similar circumstance to which it was developed. (Answering the telephone with your business voice when you are at home)