Classical Conditioning
Individuals learn by association, pairing automatic responses to new stimuli
Unconditioned stimulus
A stimulus that produces automatic physiological and/or emotional responses
Unconditioned response
The automatic response to an unconditioned stimulus
Conditioned stimulus
A stimulus that does not have a natural automatic response associated to it that is then paired with an unconditioned stimulus to elicit a response
Conditioned response
A response that has been learned through classical conditioning
The tendency for a new stimulus that is similar to the original stimulus to produce a similar response
The ability to respond to certain stimuli but not to other, similar stimuli
Operant conditioning
Reinforcing or punishing produced behaviors to train and direct learning
The process of applying consequences with the goal of increasing that behavior
Token economies
Reinforcement that uses something that lacks inherent value but can be used in exchange for things that have inherent value
Contingency contracting
A method that consists of making a written or verbal contract between the teacher and a student
Positive reinforcement
A stimulus is presented after a behavior and the behavior increases as a result
Negative Reinforcement
A stimulus is removed after a behavior and the behavior increases as a result
Teaching new behaviors by reinforcing successive approximations towards the target behavior
Using signals to indicate that a certain response is desirable or undesirable
Gradual disappearance of a learned response
Presentation punishment
Presenting a stimulus after a behavior that reduces that behavior
Removal punishment
Removing a stimulus after a behavior that reduces that behavior
Group Contingency
A written or verbal contract as a group or a whole class, where the students agree to behave in a mutually acceptable way and the teacher agrees to provide a corresponding, mutually acceptable incentive.