Bio Lab Report

The beet root was place d in seven solvents to see if the beetroot would leak any of its color see if the membrane was d imaged and by how much. The color intensity was observed by eye and measured using a SP stepmother’s. Of the solvents that had beetroot, saline had a color intensity of . 002, 1% ace tone had . 009, 25% acetone produced an intensity of . 119, 50% with the intensity of . 647, 1 % alcohol had . 006, 25% alcohol had . 022, and 50% alcohol had . 177.

The highest concentration of acetone inflicted more damage on the membrane of the beetroot causing it to leak its betrayal in in a higher intensity than any of the other solvents had caused. Acetone and methanol ca n both cause damage to the membrane of the beetroot but acetone has a greater ability an d is more damaging. The beet root model system shows the effects of chemical stress on member ones. Introduction: The membrane of the cell contains and separates the cell from the outside an d itself. It has four major components.

The phosphoric belayed is one of the main components Of the cell membrane; the belayed forms a membrane that surrounds and protects the c ell. Phosphoric homeless are composed of a polar hydrophilic head and non polar hydro obis tails. Inside the hydrophilic head is a glycerol group and a phosphate group that sometimes c an have a cooling group or sugars attached to its R group. The hydrophobic tails are two chains of fatty acids with more than 12 carbons. The hydrophobic tails face each other and the hydro hill head faces outward, forming a belayed. (Videodisc, up. 05) (Raven, up. 8994) Membranes have proteins embedded in the phosphoric belayed. Transmit brand proteins are another major component of the membrane. They have various functions an carry out several duties that all happen within the phosphoric belayed. They can help transport t solutes in and out of the cell using diffusion or facilitated diffusion. They can be catalytic and SSI Eng enzymes change a solute in a minimal way. They can also be a cell surface receptor; race peeving signals on the surface that physically bond to the receptor and then sends a different sis anal inside the cell.

They also can be a surface identity marker; marking the types of sugars that AR e at the surface of the cell. They also can adhere to another cell when receiving a protein from the other cell. The last function they have is attachment to the cytokines within the cell at cert. main points along the belayed. These proteins are displayed in a fluid mosaic model that shows how these proteins are dispersed about the belayed in a random fashion. (Videodisc, up. 1 05) (Raven, p p. 8994) The last major components of the membrane are the protein networks and c ell surface markers.

Network proteins are what the cytokines is made up of. There are three TTY pees of cytokines fibers; acting filament, misconstrues, and intermediate filaments. Acting filament t are thin and wire eke and responsible for cellular contractions. Misconstrues are hollow and WI De and move materials within the cell. Intermediate filaments are thick than acting but thin ere than misconstrues and are rope like, these are twisted throughout the cell and pro vides the stability and shape.

Each major component plays a role in the structure and function o f the cell. (Raven, up. 8994) In this experiment through the beet root model system our objective was to o observe how chemical changes affected the lipids in the membrane and how it affects the membrane structure. Materials: Test tubes, beetroot, filtered water, . 9% Saline, 1% acetone, 25% acetone, 50 acetone, 1% methanol, 25% methanol, 50% methanol, spectrophotometer, co ark borer, and blades were used Method: First we bored several small cylinders of beet from a beetroot.

We used a bald e to trim the cylinders into seven sections all mm each in length. We placed the beet ties u inside a beaker of filtered Water for 20 minutes to wash Off any released beautician that Cam e off as a result of damage from cutting the pieces. We labeled the seven test tubes one through seven, each one pertaining to their solvent; 1) . % Saline, 2) 1% acetone, 3) 25% acetone, 4) 50 % acetone, 5) 1% methanol, 6) 25% methanol, 7) 50% methanol. We put 10 ml of each solvent n the test tubes and then put one beetroot piece in each tube.

After 20 minutes we inverted t he tubes two times and estimated how much color was in each tube in a range from 0 10. We al so put samples of one group’s test tubes in a spectrophotometer and obtained color intensities of the solvents. Results: Solvents and Estimated Intensity of Beautician Released (From a range of 1 1 O) Solvents Saline 1% Acetone 25% Methanol Methanol Methanol Estimate Color Intensity 4 10 3 6 Solvents and Intensity of Beautician Released; Put in a Spectrophotometer Solvents Actual . 002 Color intensity 50% . 009 . 119 . 647 . 006 . 022 . 77 Discussion: In this experiment we observed how chemical stress can affect the lipids in a membrane and that it can affect the membrane structure. In this lab we also studied the structure of the cellular membrane. We used beet tissue to model the cellular membrane. The release of beautician, a reddish pigment from the cell shows if there was any damage of the member en surrounding the area where beautician is found. The beautician inside the beetroot is found n the vacuoles and the vacuoles are surrounded by their own membrane called the topmasts.

T he topmasts models the membrane and that is how we are able to observe and model the member Anne system. Of the solvents the higher concentration of acetone inflicted more damage on the membrane of the beetroot causing it to leak its beautician in a higher intensity than any Of t he other solvents had caused. When it was put in the spectrophotometer we saw the intensity of the color was . 647; significantly higher than the other solvents. Of all the solvents the isotonic c solution of . 9% saline had the lowest concentration of beautician. This is because the . % sail en solvent is representative of normal conditions in the cell which are isotonic meaning eve retrying is balanced. Membranes are sensitive not only to chemical changes but to temperature c hangers as well as . They are sensitive to extreme temperatures in both directions of the scale. Ex tremble high temperatures make that molecules in the cell move faster and collide into the measles violently. Extremely low temperatures causes water in the cell to crystallize and form ICC e. The formation of CE can cause the cell to expand and sometimes rupture the membrane.

Conclusion: Phosphoric are a major component of the membrane and certain chemical changes can permeate and damage the lipids in the membrane. Using the beetroot model system helps to visualize the structure of the membrane and how it can be damaged.