Biology Biochemistry

The organisms that can use photosynthesis to produce glucose are autotrophs.

These are organisms which produces complex organic compounds from simple inorganic molecules by utilizing the light from the environment (main source is the sun) or other inorganic chemical reactions (Carter, 1996).In a food chain, these autotrophs are found in the producers’ part, as they are the ones able to create their own food, while becoming food to other organisms. The plants which are able to photosynthesize are called “photoautotrophs” from the work “photo” which is light.Plants absorb the light through their chlorophyll, which also gives the green color for most plants.

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Most of the energy captured by the plant is through its leaves. This is why the surface of the leaf have coating uniformly spread all over, as well as a water resistant waxy cuticle which is the plants protection from excess evaporation of water, as well as reduce the heating by decreasing the absorption of ultraviolet light.Photosynthesis in algae and bacteria are not as complex as that of land plants, though they have similar biochemical process of photosynthesis. The algae which can perform photosynthesis come in various forms, including kelp, and several single celled organisms. For photosynthesis in bacteria, the process takes place directly within the cell instead of having any membrane bound organelles.What types of organisms can use Aerobic Cellular Respiration to break down glucose to produce ATP? Provide examples.Every living organism must do cellular desperation because it is the process which enables them to get ATP by oxidizing organic molecules. We all know that ATP are provides the energy needed for our cells to work.

Aerobic respiration is a process which requires oxygen in order to obtain energy.The organisms which undergo the process of aerobic cellular respiration are the eukaryotes. Eukaryotes include animals, plants, fungi, and protists, which are organisms whose cells are arranged to form complex structures and these, are enclosed into membranes.

What differentiates these eukaryotes from prokaryotes is the presence of the nucleus (Gregory, 2000).If oxygen is lacking, how might cells meet their energy needs through fermentation? Explain and give some examples of cells that can do this.If there is no oxygen, there are still some organisms that can meet their energy needs through fermentation. Fermentation can be defined as the process of acquiring energy by oxidizing organic compounds like carbohydrates by using an endogenous electron acceptor, which in most cases is also an organic compound (Gregory, 2000).The process of fermentation does not necessarily require an anaerobic environment. One example is that the yeasts are able to undergo fermentation even though there is the presence of abundant oxygen, instead of opting for oxidative phosphorylation, as long as the sugars are ready to be consumed. This is because the sugars are the common substrate for these organisms to undergo fermentation.

The typical products of this process are ethanol, lactic acid and hydrogen, as well as some exotic products like butyric acid and acetone. Fermentation also occurs in the mammalian muscle during the times where there is intense exercise, causing to have limited supply of oxygen in the body. Muscle cells are a good example of cells which can ferment in order to sustain low intensity energy got a longer time.Both reactions are examples of complex metabolic pathways, consisting of many linked reactions. Briefly explain the role of enzymes in chemical reactions and metabolic pathways.

An enzyme is defined as a catalyst for biological chemical reaction, and is classified as protein. It is any numerous complex proteins which are the products of cells and living organisms, and this serves as biochemical catalysts which are able to initiate and speed up various chemical processes (Silverman, 2005).These enzymes are very important to almost all of the biological processes, as they are the ones that start and hasten several biological processes that we have in or body. One example is that it helps start the process of food breakdown, which is done by enzymes found in the mouth. This is the start of the process of digestion.