Chemical bonds are formed as a result of the interaction of two or more atoms and yield to a multiple atom structure. The bonds are formed on the interaction of the valence electrons of the two interacting atoms. There are three basic types of chemical bonds which include covalent, ionic and hydrogen bonds.Covalent bonds are formed when the two atoms share electrons.
A covalent bond is formed from the electrostatic attraction of their nuclei for the same electrons. The sharing of electrons fills the electrons on the outer shell of an atom (Encyclopædia Britannica, 2009).If the electrons are shared equally between the two atoms, it is referred to as non-polar covalent bond. When the electrons are shared unequally and the electron spends more time around an atom, it is called a polar covalent bond. Covalent bond is the strongest of the three chemical bonds and is stable in water solutions.Ionic bonds, on the other hand, are formed when there is a transfer of electron that took place between two or more atoms. Electrons are transferred to another atom because the outermost shell of the atom needs to be filled, which results to the chemical stability of the formed molecule or compound. The formation of an ionic bond results on the attraction of opposite charges.
However, this type of bond usually breaks in water solutions and the compounds formed are usually dissolved in the water solution.Hydrogen bonds are quite similar to ionic bonds as they are formed due to the attraction of opposite charges. However, hydrogen bonds are attracted to the partial charges formed on the polar covalent bonds.
Hydrogen bonds are formed and broken easily. It is the weakest chemical bond and its strength is only five percent of the covalent bond. However, when many hydrogen bonds are formed, it can be sufficiently strong to be quite stable (“Hydrogen Bonds”, 2003).