Bipolar Disorder

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the behavioral disorders observed in children nowadays. As cited by Betzy Hoza,, “attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common, impairing behavior disorder occurring in approximately 3%–5% of school-age children. More often than not, ADHD co-occurs with other problems such as oppositional behavior toward adults, conduct problems, and academic failure.

Peer difficulties characterize the social ecologies of children with ADHD and constitute some of the most tenacious functional problems associated with ADHD”.Children with ADHD are observed to have an “awkward” behavior when you mixed them in a crowd because they tend to become hyperactive; they make noise, they impulsively act on things and do not pay attention to what you are saying. They seem to neglect people around them. Adolescents with ADHD are often misdiagnosed having bipolar disorder. Bipolar disorder is a psychological condition characterized by mood swings, highs and lows with manic-depressive states. At one point they are happy, the next moment they feel depressed. because according to Dr.

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Robert Buenaventura, medical director of Eli Lilly Philippines, there are some symptoms that can be both present in AD/HD and bipolar disorder, one of which is high level of energy (Manongdo). There are many studies conducted aiming to explain the causes of this abnormality. According to the article, before, studies on ADHD focused on executive functions. The recent model by Sonuga-Barke, however, not only discussed the effect of executive functions but also include the effect of motivational functions of the brain on children with ADHD.This theory argues that the executive and motivational function processes are separated and both processes contribute to manifestation of ADHD in children. The study conducted by Maggie E Toplak, Umesh Jain, and Rosemary Tannock wants to prove the dual model of ADHD.

They had observed the performance of adolescents with ADHD on a “card task” and compared it to the performance of normal or control adolescents. To be able to gather samples of adolescents with ADHD they conducted a comprehensive and clinical diagnostics.After selecting subjects with ADHD they further classified their subtype by counting inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptoms on the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL). To select normal adolescents they gave an exam known as the Conner’s questionnaire. Normal adolescents selected were interviewed further to make sure that they do not have ADHD.

A total of 34 comparison adolescents and 44 adolescents with ADHD participated in the study.They are all native English speakers and their age ranges from 13 to 18 years old. (Maggie E Toplak) The auditory verbal-memory and visual-spatial memory of all the participants were measured. To measure the auditory- verbal memory the Digit Span subtest was used while the Spatial Span subtest was used to measure the visual-spatial memory. For the experimental task, the card task designed after the lowa gambling task was applied.

The lowa gambling task was employed in the study because as cited by Toplak, according to Bechara, “what has been particularly striking and important about these studies on Iowa Gambling Task performance with patients who have ventromedial cortex lesions is not simply the link between brain function and higher cognitive processes, but also the possibility that this form of reasoning may be fairly modular and localized, and separable from other cognitive abilities, such as intelligence”. The card task applied by the authors involves selection of cards from four decks labeled with A, B, C and D.From the four decks, two are advantageous while the other two are disadvantageous.

Included in the cards are penalties and rewards. The cards in the four decks are combinations of the four characteristics: advantageous, disadvantageous, frequent low penalties and infrequent high penalties. The participants, without knowing the content of each deck of cards were told to select 100 cards and like any other gambling one must maximize the amount of money they could win.

Each participant loaned $20. 00 as starting money. Data were gathered after the task.Analysis of Covariance, posthoc analysis and correlational analyses are the statistical tests used to analyze the data. Bonferroni correction was used for posthoc analyses conducted.

According to Toplak the correlational analyses revealed that the evaluation or rating of the parents is the one related to the performance of the adolescents with ADHD in the card task and not the working memory. Sex do not have significant effect on their performance in the lowa gambling task The adolescents with ADHD scored lower than the controls in the digit span subtest and the spatial span subtest indicating their impaired memory.Subjects with ADHD also selected less advantageous cards on the card task indicating a low intellectual ability and working memory for adolescents with ADHD. The performance of the participants in the card task, however, was found to be unrelated to their performance on measures of intellectual ability and working memory. In adolescents with ADHD the card task performance is significantly associated with parent ratings of hyperactivity/impulsivity. According to the authors of the article based on the result, the dual pathway model of ADHD by Sonuga-Barke is a good model that could explain the cause of ADHD in children.

This theory also explains the impaired decision making of individuals with ADHD. The result of the study also showed that motivational and executive functional processes are indeed separated. Maggie E Toplak, Umesh Jain, and Rosemary Tannock “Executive and Motivational Processes in Adolescents with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (Adhd).

” Behavioral and Brain Functions 1. 8 (2005). Manongdo, J. Lo F. “Does Your Child Have Ad/Hd? Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

” (2005).