Vocabulary for Language Development

What are the three modes of communication?
Language, prosody, and proxemics.
Identify the four components of language.
phonology; semantics; morphology; syntax.
Define Language.
socially shared code that uses a conventional system of arbitrary symbols to represent ideas about the world that are meaningful to others who know the same code. A symbolic system agreed upon by others to be meaningful.
(Spoken, manual ie ASL, written)
Important for being able to communicate past, present, future.
The clearest channel of communication.
Define Prosody. (noun)
qualities of the voice such as pitch, stress, speed, pause length, how melodic, sarcasm.
-ic (verb)-roles include emotion, sincerity; differs by language.
Define Proxemics.
Expressions of the body such as gesture, body posture, facial expression, eye contact.
words based on sound, i.e. woof, or meow
Define Phonology.
The sound system of a language; the individual sounds in words.
Define Semantics
The vocabulary of a language; the meanings of the words and phrases.
Define Morphology.
The internal structure of words (i.e. prefixes, suffixes, roots)
Define Syntax.
The sentence structure of a language; how words combine into sentences.
Receptive Language
understanding and discriminating sounds, words and sentences. Begins earlier, can understand more than can speak or write. (phonology, semantics, and syntax)
Productive Language.
Ability to produce spoken, signed or written language. (Morphology, phonology, semantics and syntax)
What are the three levels of language knowledge?
Linguistic (producing the sounds), metalinguistic (thinking about it), metalinguistic verbal (talking about it)
Define Pidgin.
a mix of languages, usually more than two, used to communicate where multiple language people come together.
Define Creole.
When pidgin becomes a local language.
Define Dialect.
Language with different sentence structures, word choice, and historical changes.
Define Phoneme.
(Phono=sound; eme=meaning)
The smallest individual sound that carries meaning.
Define allophones.
These are subtle variations in phonemes that occur as a result of their position in a word. Example: t in top vs. t in stop, in stop the t is more of a d
What are the two types of phonemes in English?
vowels and consonants
Consonants vary, how?
vary in place or articulation, manner or articulation, and voicing. (nasals, glides, and stops)
What are the two kinds of English vowels?
monopthongs, i.e. o in bot (single sound)and
dipthongs, i.e. o in boy (double sound-oe)
Define segmentation and articulation in infants’ phonological development.
Perceiving when one word stops and the next begins.
Gaining control of the mouth to be able to produce phonemes and combination’s of phonemes.
Define Articulation and where it occurs.
Where airflow is restricted; takes place at the lips, teeth, roof of the mouth, and back of the mouth.
Early language development: Nature View
Children are born with a strong biological potential to acquire language. In the presence of language, the language acquisition device is activated and language develops.
Early Language Development: Nurture View
Social experience is the stimulus for language acquisition. The language environment and caregivers’ interactions and verbal supports play important roles in language acquisition.
Language experience decreases the ability to make fine discrimination’s of phonemes in other languages after 8 months of age.
Five phases of infants phoneme production:
Reflexive vocalizations; cooing and gooing; Vocal play; Basic canonical babbling; jargon babbling.
Jargon Babbling is:
9-18 months
Babbling echoes rhythm of adult speech; Overlaps with periods of meaningful speech
Basic Canonical Babbling is:
5-10 months
Production of consonant-vowel syllables with varying intonation i.e. bababa; producing front consonant sounds i.e.m/p/b/d/; This phase distinguishes the vocal development of hearing and deaf infants. Deaf infants produce little to none of this phase.
Expansion/Vocal Play is:
3-8 months
Production of a wider variety of consonants and vowels; Appearance of very loud and very soft sounds, as well as low and high sounds; Increasing fine motor control of speech; Infants appear to be exploring and practicing how to produce, repeat and vary sounds.
Cooing and Gooing are:
1-4 months
extended vowel sounds, esp. back vowels; productions of back consonants like ‘g’ which require less control. Infants are learning to manipulate their tongues and mouths.
Reflexive vocalizations:
0-2 months
Automatic responses to physical states such as cries, fussing, and involuntary grunts. May be some vowel/like sounds.
3 factors of timing of phoneme production:
Frequency of the phonemes occurrence in the language; Number of words in the child’s vocab. that contain the phoneme; Articulatory complexity of the phoneme
At 4-5 years, English speaking children have difficulty producing several phonemes which are:
r, l, s, sh, ch, and z sounds, and both ‘th’ sounds