Butler Assessment

Nature versus nurture is a theory about human development. For the side of nature t is thought that a person becomes who they become due to the inherited genetic material passed from parents to children. This includes how the person physically looks, like hair and eye color, height and weight. This also includes inherited predispositions to diseases like diabetes, heart disease and cancer. These are all physical characteristics and most people will except that these characteristics can be passed from parents to children.

Nature goes a step further than just the physical though, and puts forward the idea that a person’s personality, sexuality, type of behavior, and level of intelligence is also the result of inheritance. These characteristics are inborn and cannot be influenced by the environment. For the side of nurture it is thought that a person’s development is influenced by the environment. Nurture puts forward the idea that children are born as a blank slate and they become the person they are through observation and learning. These days science says that it is a combination of both.

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In this case both you and your father have had issues with drug and alcohol use, this could mean that your genetic make-up has a predisposed tendency to a dependence on these substances. Coupled with the possible genetic inheritance is the exposes to your fathers heavy drinking throughout your childhood, you may have learned from him that using drugs or alcohol is a natural part of life. 2. Briefly explain how understanding Freudian theory (the id, ego and superego) could help you to understand and work with Jarred. Understanding Fraud’s theory of how the three components of the personality, the id, the ego and the superego operate, would help me work with Jarred. This theory’ can help me identify some of the motivations behind Scrod’s behaviors, and the resulting actions that have led to Jarred being squired to attend court ordered counseling. Due to Scrod’s early unstable upbringing, I believe that the id has become the dominant force behind most of Scrod’s behaviors. As a young child Jarred was neglected by both of his parents, often going to bed hungry and alone.

As a result of this neglect the id gained more energy than the ego and superego, the id is trying to help Jarred overcome feelings of discomfort, pain and tension. The id does not care about consequences and seeks only pleasure which can become a problem when left unchecked by the ego. As Jarred grew into early adolescence, the SE of illegal drugs was the id’s way of trying to help reduce the feelings of discomfort for Jarred. As a consequence of these actions Scrod’s cognitive functioning, impulse control, and emotional security have all been affected.

The lack of a strong ego to keep the id in check has allowed Jarred to make some bad choices, landing him in a detention centre. However Jarred has recently met a man named Tim at his local youth centre and sees Tim as a mentor and role model. Jarred now wishes to clean up his act, to become a more balanced individual. This means that both his superego and his ego are gaining more energy. Time’s positive role modeling has provided Scrod’s superego with a set of rules to help guide him towards becoming a more respectful person.

While the ego is trying to help Jarred make compromises that will strengthen his identity, and help him live his life in a safer and more socially acceptable way. Fraud’s theory of the id, ego and superego enables me to understand the motivations behind Scrod’s behaviors. It allows me to see that he is now ready to control the impulses of the id, to allow the ego to consider the consequences of his actions and develop his superego to strengthen his moral code. When working with Jarred I believe focusing on further development of the ego and superego will help Jarred have a more balanced and happy life. . Briefly analyses Scrod’s situation from the perspective of Mascots hierarchy of needs, and explain how this theory might influence your work with him. When applying Mascots theory to Scrod’s situation, I notice that all of his needs have been neglected throughout his life. Firstly, I can clearly see that form very early on Scrod’s physiological needs were often not met. Due to his mother working nights and his father’s frequent late nights at the local pub, Jarred repeatedly went to bed alone and hungry.

Secondly, Scrod’s needs of safety and security were overlooked by both of his parents, when they left him all alone as a young child to look after himself, and the exposes to his father’s domestic violence. Thirdly, Scrod’s needs of belongingness and love would have to be affected, due to the first two needs not being met by both of his parents. If both parents neglected his basic needs, then how could Jarred expect to feel a sense of belonging and love from them. Lastly, Scrod’s self-esteem needs would not have developed fully due to the lack of his lower bevel needs being met.

If both of his parents did not make him feel that he belonged and was loved by them, it would be very difficult to establish feelings of worth. Moscow believed that in order for a person to move to the higher stage in the hierarchy of needs, they must first have their lower needs met. Scrod’s constant exposes to hunger, isolation and domestic violence as a young child would have had a negative impact on his development. When working with Jarred I think this theory provides an excellent guide to understanding Scrod’s past behavior and a way of working towards change.

As Jarred is now twenty-two years old, he is the person responsible for all of his needs. As long as he is able to take care of the basic lower level needs, like food, shelter and safety, he can work towards developing a sense of belonging and love. Scrod’s ability to ask questions like ‘Where do I belong’ and ‘Who am l’, indicates to me that he is ready to understand and work on this level of the hierarchy. I would be interested in helping Jarred find the answers to his questions and move towards finding his place in the world.

I would focus my counseling around establishing how Jarred currently sees myself, and what would be some areas he would like to work on, in regards to feeling a sense belongingness and love. 4. Briefly explain how Piglet’s stages of cognitive development could help you to understand and work with Jarred. According to Pigged there are four stages of cognitive development, as children grow, their capacity to understand the world, corresponds to their age. During Scrod’s operational stage his parents moved to Australia from England.

His parents lacked the support of a broader family dynamic, his mother had to work nights, and his father was often absent due to developing a drinking problem. This meant that Jarred was often left alone and unfed. Jarred was also exposed to domestic violence due to his fathers heavy drinking. This type of upbringing would have had a negative impact on Scrod’s cognitive development. As Jarred moved into the operational stage and the concrete operational stage, the exposure to his father’s domestic violence, may have impacted Scrod’s confidence and ability to communicate effectively.

He may have been learning more from his peers than his parents. This lack of guidance from his parents and the exposes to an alcoholic father, could be one of the reasons that Jarred started to use drugs t such a young age. The drug use has further impacted on Scrod’s cognitive development, affecting his cognitive functioning, impulse control and his emotional maturity. Jarred is now in the formal operational stage and is beginning to take steps to clean up his act.

He has found a mentor and role model in Tim, and through developing this relationship, he finally sees that he has creative potential. When working with Jarred, Piglet’s stages will help me understand why Jarred acts more like a sixteen year old youth rather than a twenty two year old man. 5. Briefly explain how Erosion’s stages of placement may assist Jarred to understand his feelings. Although Jarred is twenty two years old, his illegal drug usage has caused him some developmental problems which have affected his cognitive functioning, impulse control, and his emotional security.

This has resulted in behavior more characteristic of a sixteen year old youth rather than a young adult. Due to Scrod’s age he should currently be in stage six, which is the early adulthood stage. However Scrod’s progress through Erosion’s stages seem not to have reached an optimal level, resulting in psychological issues harmonistic of each stage. Beginning in the second stage when Jarred was two years old, he and his family moved to Australia from England.

Jarred and his parents were without a broader family dynamic which resulted in a lack of family support. Both parents were often absent from Scrod’s life neglecting his most basic needs. During the muscular-anal stage Jarred may have developed a stronger sense of autonomy, due to having to fend for himself. In the next two stages he seems to have developed a poor sense of direction, and feelings of inferiority. Scrod’s behavior suggests that he is still mainly Operating in the adolescence Stage.

In this stage he is struggling to find his identity, this can be seen in the type of questions Jarred is asking like ‘Who am l’ and ‘Where do belong’. In order for Jarred to progress fully to the early adulthood stage, he will first need to work on finding out his own identity. Once Jarred has completed this stage he can then move towards working on establishing intimate bonds of love and friendship.