*Base word
A plain word with nothing added to it
*Characteristics of Dyslexia

Difficulty reading single words in isolation2.Difficulty accurately decoding nonsense or unfamiliar words3.Slow, inaccurate, or labored oral reading; (lack of reading fluency); and/or4. Difficulty with learning to spell

*Grace Fernald
Orton was influenced by the kinesthetic method of Fernald and Helen Keller. He suggested that kinesthetic-tactile reinforcement of visual and auditory associations could correct the tendency of reversing letters and transposing the sequence of letters while reading and writing.
*Greek Words
kilometer, gymnastics, tragedy,
*IDEA Amendments of 1997 What if child has disability and requires special services, what must school provide under new ammendment?
If the evaluation confirms that a child has one or more disabilities and requires special eductaion and related services because of the disabilites, the states and localities must provide a FREE, APPROPRIATE PUBLIC EDUCATION FOR THAT CHILD.
*Interactive COmponents of Language
Form: Phonology, Morphology, Syntax, OrthographyContent: SemanticsUse: Pragmatics
*Isabelle Liberman
presented evidence that deficits in PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSING underlie most cases of reading disability and arise from weaknesses with the language system in the brain itself, not from more general sensory or cognitive impairments.

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*Ken Goodman*Kenneth Smith
key names associated with WHOLE LANGUAGE
*Martha Denckla and Rita Rundel
Dyslexic students have trouble with RAPID NAMING
*Maryanne Wolfe and Patricia Bowers
Coined the term DOUBLE DEFICIT to describe students who had difficulty with BOTH PHONOLGICAL PROCESSING AND RAPID NAMING 1986
*Otitis Media
inflammation of the MIDDLE EAR that can lead to temporary conductive hearing loss, or sometimes, permanent hearing loss. A young child who experiences hearing loss from otitis media may have resultng speech or language difficulties.
rules for combination fo sounds
*Reid Lyon/National Reading Panel
National Reading Panel’s charge was to examine the effectiveness of instructional methods for teaching reading. These are the components of instruction that should be included as reasearched by the panel:PhonologyPhonicsFluencyVocabularyComprehension
*Samuel T.

Ortaon’s (Father of Dyslexia) Contributions to the Field

1.Identified the syndrome of ‘specific language disability’2. Separated disabled readers from students with mental retardation, brain damage, and primary emotional disturbances3. Proposed a system for diagnosis4. outlined principles of remediation for disabled readers
*Synthetic phonics
teaches individual parts to form whole words READING
*What kind of instruction does my dyslexic child need?
Explicit, systematic and cumulative, structured and multisensory
a word that modifies a noun or pronoun
a word that modifies a verb, adjective or adverb
a group of letters added to the beginning or end of a base word.
the loss of the ABILITY TO READ, usually the result of BRAIN INJURY
*alphabetc principle
to derive meaning one must understand that letters represent speech sounds. The letters themselves are meaningless.

Putting the letters together forms words to give meaning.

*analytic phonics
start with a whole and you break it down to parts SPELLING
words of opposite meaning
ability to respond or react without attention or conscious effort
*bound morpheme
a morpheme that must be attached to other morphemes (ed in spotted, s in boys, pre in preview)
*chameleon prefix
a prefix whose final consonant changes based on the initial letter of the root (e.g. in-changes to ir- before responsible).

Remember, the spelling of a vowel prefix never changes. However, the spelling of consonant prefex may change. Chameleon prefixes are primarily of Latin origin. When you see DOUBLE letters near the beginning of a word, it will be a clue that the word is from the LATIN. (Ad/accept. com/collector.

dis/differ.ex/evict. in/illustrate. ob/offensive. sub/suppress)

*cloze procedure
we call this the ‘fill in the blank technique’.

The teacher begins the statement and allows the student to complete the statement.

*crossed, mixed dominance
The student who is NOT right handed, right eyed, and right footed or left handed, left eyed, and left footed.
*curriculum-referenced test
Test in which items are taken from the curriculum used in the child’s classroom so that he or she is not tested on material that has not been taught. A curriculum-referenced test provides a good match between assessment and instruction and may be standarized or informal.
*diagnostic evaluation
used to determine a student’s difficulties
two vowels that blend smoothly together in one syllable. There are four diphtongs in English (oi, oy, ou, ow)
*discovery method
Presentation of new material which can be deduced or discovered by the students (Socratic method)
a disorder in the nervous system which hinders control over the tonue, throat, lips, or lungs (slurred speech like when you leave the dentist office)
*formative evaluation
ongoing assessment
*free morpheme
a morpheme that can stand alone as a word ( box, plant, tame) Also called unbound morpheme.

*graphic organizers
visual displays of information to help a studnet compose written matieral or study for tests (outlines, semantic maps, story wheels/diagrams)
Words that sound like another but have different spellings and meanings (bare/bear, fourth/forth)
*informal testing
Tests that are structured but not standardized; they typically follow the format of standardized tests, but presentation can be modified to probe the students’ responses in ways that are not permissible with standardized tests.
*instant or rapid word recognition
automatcticity in word recognition permits full energy to be focused on comprehension
a word that expresses a strong feeling
*invented spelling
encouraged from preschool to 1st grd to help students develop phonemic awareness and apply their knowledge of sounds, symbols, and letter patterns to the task of spelling. The use of invented spelling is temporary until regular orthography is learned.
anything between first and last
the deliberate rearrangement, regrouping, or modal transfer of information; the conscious choice of the strategies used to accomplish a task and processes to provide feedback on learning and performance.
a word or phrase that means one thing and that is used, through implication, to mean someting else (his remark created a blizzard of controversy.


a device to assist memory. “Steak is great but it will break your budget”
the smallest meaingful linguistist unit. May be a whole word (child) a base word(child in childhood) a suffix(hood in childhood) or prefix (un in untie)
the structure of sounds
study of the structure of words (prefixes, suffixes, root words)
involving auditory, visual, and kinesthetic channels to assist learning
*naming speed
(rapid automatic naming, rapid automatized naming, rapid serial naming-a speed naming task, most often administered to prereaders in which the invidual is asked to name quickly A SERIES OF PRINTED LETTERS, NUMBER, or blocks of color repeated over and over in random order.

sound produced in which air is blocked in the oral cavity by escapes through nose (/m/,/n/ /ng/)
the writing system of a language; correct or standardized spelling according to established usuage
*phonological memory
HOLDING information about SOUNDS and WORDS in MEMORY
*phonological processing
an umbrella term for a large category of oral language processing abilities that are realted to the SOUNDS in words and are associated with the ABILITY to READ WELL (phonological memory, phonological awareness, and naming speed)
the musical quality of language, including intonation, expression, stress, pitch, juncture, and rhythm, which is significant in our ability to communicate and comprehend emotions and attitudes.
*repeated readings
method to increase fluency. Students read with a different focus: attention to accuracy, attention to punctuation and intonation, and attention to phrasing.
gives information about a students knowledge and skill base
The science of meaning
a hissing sound such as /s/, /ks/, /z/, /ch/, /sh/, /j/, /zh/
An explicit comparison of two unlike things, usually with the word like or as (Her tousled hair was like an explosion in a spaghetti factory.)
*sound/symbol correspondence
the matching of the sound a letter makes to the orthographic representation of that sound
*spelling-temporary/invented spelling
this is emerging spelling. It is encouraged in young students to develop the sound/symbol knowledge for spelling
Orton’s term for DYSLEXIA (twisted symbols) Twisted sister 🙂
*structural analysis
the strategy of looking for prefixes, suffixes, stems, and/or dividing words into syllables in order to decode a word
*summative evaluation
given at end of a major unit, semester, or year
a word, or part of a word, made with one opening of the mouth
words having similar meaning
The order of words in a sentence
a diacritical marking. It is a waving line placed over a vowel before ‘r’ in a a combination to indicate the unaccented pronunciation
voiced sounds require the vibration of the vocal cords during their production. All vowels are voiced.

Some consonants are voiced.

a word that identifies action, being or state or being
1877Word Blindness (deafness)
Kussmaul described the loss of reading ability to person w/normal vision who see letters and words but can no longer interpret written lang. He alson used ‘word deafness’ to describe one who hears normally but cannot recognize normal words.

Used again by James Hinshelwood to describe loss of ability to read previously known word.

A Dyslexic BrainBroca’s area/Inferior frontal gyrus
articulation/word analysis-Receives info 3rd-where dysl. use to read. Where dysl use and read outloud.

We all use this aread to read outloud/dysl use it to read/this is why they subvocalize/they overly rely on this area to read.

A Dyslexic BrainOccipito-Temporal
word form-Receives info 2nd-when automaticity happens when we see it and know it
A Dyslexic BrainParieto-temporal
Word analysis-receives info 1st-breaks words down to their parts
Angular Gyrus
Receives information 2nd-breaks into phonemes
Brocca’s Area
Receives info 4th-Responsible for reading and speech
Congenital Word Blindness 1896
Dr. W. Pringle Morgan referred to inability to learn to read despite no apparent injury or illness. Dr. James hinshelwood used the same term in 1896 and 1917 in several papers.
Doubling Rule
Is ‘lexia’ from the word Dyslexia from GREEK origin?
Isabelle Liberman
presented evidence that deficits are from phonological processing or awareness
Keith Stanovich

Dyslexia stems from a a core deficit in phonological processing, not a deficit in visual processing 19912.The entire range of difficulties often attributed to dyslexia may stem from what he calls the phonological core deficit3.He coined the term MATTHEW EFFECT-students with phonemic awareness get richer because they have phonemic awarenss in place 1986

Ken GoodmanKenneth Smith
Key names assoc with WHOLE LANGUAGE
Occipital Cortex
Receives information first-VISION
Old English449 AD-1066 AD
Began when Angles, Saxons and Jutes arrived in England.

Language of Anglo-Saxons became foundation of English. Language of the Vikings, Old Norse and Latin languages also influenced this period.

Phonological Awareness
An “umbrella” term that is used to refer to a student’s sensitivity to  the sound structure in language.  It encompasses awareness of individual words in sentences, syllables, and onset-rime segments, as well as awareness of individual phonemes.
The study of speech sound system, the rules and patterns of speech sound comobinations and production. This is a larger umbrella term than phonetics. It is the unconscious rules and patterns that automatically occur in spoken language (the /a/ in sank is slightly different that the /a/ in sat and pat.

The vocal intonation and meter of spoken language.  When reading with prosody, readers sound as if they are speaking the part they are reading.
Stages of Spelling DevelopmentPhonetic Stage
Stage in spellikng developmentin which every sound is represented, by the complete knowledge of conventional orthography is not (e.g., sede for seed)
Stages of Spelling DevelopmentPrephonetic Stage
Stage in spelling development in which not all of the sounds of the owrd are represented by letters (e.g., js for dress)
Stages of Spelling DevelopmentSemiphonetic Stage
stage in spelling development in which a child usually strings consonants together to represent speech sounds in words and syllables (e.

g., ntr for enter)

Torgesen, Lundber, and Foorman
others who have presented evidence that phonological awareness is a critical factor in dyslexia
Wernike’s area
Receives info 3rd-responsible for understanding the language/subvocalizing
When is vr not a vr?
double r’s, vowel r is followed by a vowel as in very, merit, arid.
Word Deafness1937
Dr.s Orton and Dozier both used this term
Written Expressive Language
a = /au/
before the letter l as in ball
a = /o/
after w
a disorder that prevents certain complex mucular movements, caused by damage to the brain. (inability to speak or speak clearly)
auditory memory
The ability to remember SOUNDS in sequence. This affects spelling. The student must hold onto individual sounds in sequence in order to attach the appropriate letter to a sound.

This also affects the ability to follow oral directions.

Reading fluently and without difficulty or attention to decoding.
Combining spoken phonemes to form syllables and words (e.g., /m/ /a/ /n/ to make man)
bound morpheme
a morpheme that must be attached to other morphemes (-ed, spotted/-s boys)
c = /k/
a, o, u or any consonant
the code mark placed over vowels to indicate an unusual pronunciation
Applying knowledge of letter-sound relationships in order to sound out a word.  In reading practice, the term is used primarily to refer to word identification rather than word comprehension.
derivational endings or suffixes
a morpheme added to a base word that creates a new word that is a different part of a speech from that of the base word (-ness changes adj.

careless into noun carelessness)

diacritical marking
marks that indicate how a sound is to be pronounced
2 dots over an A to indicate the short O sound (star, watch, squash, father)
difficulty with math
sensorimotor diruption in which the motor signals to the muscles, such as those necessary for speech production, are not consistently or efficiently received. Difficulty getting the body to do what you want it to do when you want it to do it ( A person is born with dyspraxia)
The origin and histoy of a word; they study of word derivation
Reading text at an appropriate rate, and with accuracy, expression, and appropriate phrasing; not hurrid reading.  ACCURACY is reaing words in text with no errors.

  ORAL READING ACCURACY is the ability to identify or decode words with appropriate pronunciation and is measured as a percentage of words read correctly.

g = /g/
before a, o, u or any consonant
g = /j/
before e, i, or y.
letter or group of letters used to spell a phoneme or single speech sound ( /i/, /gh/)
graphophonemic knowledge
The recognition of the letters of the alphabet and the understanding of sound-symbol relationships and spelling patterns
A word that is pronounced the same, but not spelled the same, as another word and that has a different meaning (e.g., bear and bare, week and weak)
inflectional ending/suffix
Letters that combine with a base word to express tense, number, mood or person (e.

g., -s, -ing,    -ed)

An awareness of on’s own thinking processes and how they work.  The process of consciously thinking about one’s learning or reading while being engaged in learning or reading, metacognitive strategies can be taught to students to help them learn and read better.
The smallest part of a word that has meaning and cannot be divided into smaller parts. May be a single phoneme /l/, single syllable (sleep) or multisyllabic (pyramid).

A word may have one or more morphemes (sleepiness)

n = /ng/
naming speed
a speed naming task, most often administed to prereaders in which the individual is asked to name quickly a series of printed letters, numbers, or blocks of color repeated over and over in random order.
o = /u/
the vowel o is frequently pronounced /u/ before m, n, or v (onion)
The smalles unit of sound in speech (e.g., the /s/ /a/ /d/ of sad…

an individual sound unit in spoken words; the smallest unit of speech that makes on word distinguishable from another

phonemic awareness
The ability to identify, distinguish, and manipulate the individual sounds (phonemes) and/oro syllables in words
The STUDY of speech sounds that occur in languages, the physical description of the speech sounds. THink about the 44 speech sound and Linkage 1. Knowledge of phonetics heighten the T’s awareness of speed, sounds and how they are produced in order to provide a correct model for students.
the INSTRUCTIONAL METHOD that teaches the use of written sybols to represent the speech sounds for reading and spelling
the sound system of a language; the science of speech sounds, including the development of speech sound in one language or comparison of speech sound development in different languages
A vowel that is followed by the consonant r, such that its pronunciation is influenced by the /r/ and is neither a long or short vowel sound (e.g., farm, her, first).
aspects of language (intonations, stress, loudness, pitch level, juncture, and speaking rate) Supersize a sound-I get a syllable-If I supersize a word, I get a phrase, if I super size a phrase I get a sentence.
The arrangement and sequence of words in sentences, clauses and phrases.
voiced-voiceless cognates
phonemes produced in the same place of the mouth and in the same manner, but that vary in the voicing characteristics /k/ and /g/
when c = /s/when g = /j/
after e, i, or yI call these the troublemakers